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Golder is at the forefront of PFAS research to develop innovative and sustainable options for PFAS testing, fate and transport, and remediation to minimize environmental and human health concerns.

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WHERE CAN PFASBEFOUND?

Golder is at the forefront of PFAS research to develop innovative and sustainable options for PFAS testing, fate and transport, and remediation to minimize environmental and human health concerns.

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Source:The information was adapted from a compilation of information presented by the US Environmental Protection Agency regarding known Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) use and sources, based upon a search of existing literature from a variety of sources (e.g., scientific journals, scientific publications, etc.).

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Metal plating and finishingPFAS have been used for chrome plating, and electroplating of copper, nickel, and tin.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Paper and cardboard packagingWaterproof and greaseproof paper packaging products may contain PFAS. Examples include food contact paper such as plates, popcorn bags, pizza boxes, and food containers and wraps. Packaging also includes non-food contact applications such as folding cartons, carbonless forms, and masking papers.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?AntifoggingPFAS can be used on glass, metal, or plastic surfaces as an antimist film. PFAS can also be used for the same with glass and plastic cover sheets used in agriculture.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?PhotographyPFAS have been used in manufacturing film, paper, and plates. Photography industry users of PFAS include producers of consumer film, X-ray film for medical and industrial use, and the movie industry. CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Cement additivesPFAS reduce cement shrinkage, make cement tiles more weather resistant and improves primers used for coating cement mortar.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?AdhesivesPFAS have been used in solvent-based and water-based adhesives, and used in products for wood particleboard bonding.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?PesticidesPFAS may have been used as inert surfactants in pesticide products, and can be used as dispersants and wetting agents for herbicides and to aid wetting and penetration in insecticides.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Cosmetics and personal carePFAS have been used in cosmetics as emulsifiers, lubricants, or oleophobic agents. PFAS are also used in hair-conditioning formulations and hair creams. PFAS can be used in toothpaste to increase fluoride-enamel interactions.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Electronics and semiconductorsPFAS have been used in the manufacturing of digital cameras, cell phones, printers, scanners, satellite communication systems, radar systems, and more. Some examples include use of PFAS to make insulated wire, electric circuit sealants, and in lubricants coated on the surface of magnetic recording devices such magnetic tape, floppy disks, and disk drives. PFAS have also been used to reduce surface tension and reflectivity of etching solutions for precise photolithography in the semiconductor industry. They have been used in liquid etchant in photo mask rendering process.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?MiningIn addition to their potential use in firefighting foams, there are reports that PFAS may have been used as surfactants to enhance recovery of metals from ores in copper and gold mines. They may have been used in the ore flotation process to separate metal salts from soil and in electrowinning of metals. PFAS may also have been used in nitrogen flotation to recover uranium.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Industrial and household cleaning productsPFAS are found in various industrial and household cleaning products including carpet spot cleaners, alkaline cleaners, floor polish, denture cleaners, shampoos and dishwashing liquids. PFAS are also used for cleaning hard surfaces in general including wood, glass, countertops, and flooring. In the automobile industry they were used in car wash products and automobile waxes, as well as in windshield wiper fluid.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?EtchingPFAS have been used as wetting agents in etch baths. This includes glass etching, plastics etching, fused silica, and aluminum.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Fuel and oil spillsPFAS have been used to prevent fires from fuel and oil spills. CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Oil & GasIn addition to their potential use in firefighting foams, PFAS may be used as surfactants to enhance recovery in oil or gas recovery wells, evaporation inhibitors for gasoline, and as jet fuel and hydrocarbon solvents. They have also been used in civil and military hydraulic oils to prevent evaporation, fires, and corrosion.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Fire-fighting foamAqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and other types of fluorinated foams have been used to extinguish hydrocarbon fires at airports, firefighting training areas, train yards/derailments, refineries, fuel/oil bulk storage terminals, manufacturing plants, mine sites and other locations.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?TextilesPFAS have been used in the textile industry for their ability to repel oil, water, and stains. Some examples are water repellent jackets, shoes, and umbrellas. Household products such as carpets, upholstery, and leather are also treated with PFAS and outdoor equipment such as tents and sails can also be treated.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?LandfillsPFAS can be present at both non-hazardous and hazardous waste disposal sites including municipal, construction/demolition and industrial waste landfills. PFAS concentrations in leachate can vary depending on landfill type, design and type of operations.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Medical usesMost video endoscopes contain a small amount of PFAS.PFAS have been used as a dispersant in radio-opaque ETFE production for accuracy and precision in medical devices such as radio-opaque catheters for angiography and in-dwelling needle catheters. It has been found that PFAS facilitate dispersion of cell aggregates from tissues in a saline solution, used to diagnose cell abnormalities.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Wastewater & BiosolidsPFAS can be present in wastewater from industrial and municipal effluents. PFAS are typically also found in biosolids generated by treatment of this wastewater.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Surface coating, paint, varnish, and inksPFAS have been used in coating, paint, and varnish. In dyes and inks, they can be used as pigment grinding aids.CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS

body { margin: 0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; } * { box-sizing: border-box; } /* STRUCTURE */ .wrapper { max-width: 960px; width: 95%; } a:link, a:visited { background-color: #43B02A; ; color: white; padding: 14px 25px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; display: inline-block; font-weight: 600; } a:hover, a:active { background-color: #FDDA24; } Where Can PFAS Be Found?Plastics, resins, and rubberPFAS have been used to manufacture certain plastics or applied plastics.PFAS have been used as mold-release agents for thermoplastics, polypropylene, epoxy resins, polyurethane elastomer foam molding.PFAS have been used in formulations for anti-blocking agents for vulcanized and unvulcanized rubbers. CONTACT US SIGN UP FOR LATEST INSIGHTS