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Supporting theCircular Economy:

illustrations from the EU SWITCH programmes

Design:

This publication takes us to a journey across selected economic sectors, with a view to inspiring and encouraging a switch to green, notably circular, practices. Facts and figures on the environmental impact of economic activities are used to explain the challenges faced in each sector. These are complemented with stories from the field, showcasing successful green economy projects with strong replication potential.

Design:

The Tourism value chain is a major component of international trade and an important growth factor for many developing countries. Tourism brings income and jobs, but is also an impetus for poverty eradication, gender equality, and importantly, the protection and promotion of our natural and cultural heritage. Tourism also has a special, two-way relationship with the environment. On the one hand, the quality of the environment is essential to tourism’s success, as very often this is what attracts people to visit a place and persuades them to go back. On the other hand, tourism can become the vector of significant pressures and impacts on the environment.Climate change and tourism are closely interlinked, too. While the tourism sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, for the most part derived from the transport of tourists, it also faces profound impacts from global warming, with the 3S (sun, sea & sand), the winter and the nature-based tourism segments being most affected.Potential adverse effects of tourism development relate to three main areas: strain on natural resources, pollution, and physical impacts on the land and habitats, typically involving ecosystem degradation.

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Potential adverse effects of tourism development on the environment

Supporting the Circular Economy

Links with Environment / Climate change

SustainableTourism

According to theEU Guidebook on Sustainable Tourism for Development, ‘Tourism can be a vehicle to foster economic and social growth, through the achievement of development imperatives, while minimizing negative social, cultural and environmental impacts.’

Sustainable tourism in development cooperation entails a wide range of interventions, from investments in transportation and other infrastructure to the uptake of sustainable consumption and production practices by MSMEs in the related value chain. Planning for sustainable tourism actions, needs to carefully consider aspects like minimising the need for transportation of people and goods, promoting the purchase and use of zero-emission vehicles and other equipment, giving preference to climate proof, green infrastructure (focusing on nature-based solutions), giving better access to easy and comfortable public transportation, and developing green tourism businesses. These are hotels, restaurants and related companies whose establishments respect the local natural ecosystem, apply appropriate water saving and sewage management measures, are energy-efficient, prioritise the use of renewable energy over fossil fuels, and apply circular economy or other green business models to minimise waste generation.Tourism is closely interlinked with other sectors, such as transport, agriculture, food and beverages, handicrafts and creative sectors, eco-system services, etc. with leverage for supporting a wider promotion of the Green Economy, when developed in a sustainable manner.

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Supporting the Circular Economy

Promoting sustainable approaches

Sustainable Tourism

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable tourism through the SWITCH programme, for example by focusing on the development of environmental certification for tour operators, hotels and restaurants (with projects in Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Kenya and Mauritius), and on the promotion of energy certification or eco-labelling standards.

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ProjectStory

Tourism Approaches

Supporting the Circular Economy

The EU SwitchMed programme: An eco-friendly holiday in an organic paradiseIn the Oulja d’El Jadida region of Morocco, a man has decided to bring together tourists, locals and farmers with a vision to construct and operate a small organic paradise for visitors. The EU supports this entrepreneur’s efforts through the SwitchMed programme, offering him incubation services to develop his ideas into a viable green business.Imagine a place that respects humans, the environment, the local region and its biodiversity. A house that is surrounded by wooden bungalows and a bioclimatic chalet, with shrubs and bushes separating the narrow lanes in the landscape. Nearby, a large greenhouse is ready to welcome a group of visitors who are curious to look at the seeds growing in the organic plantations. A bit further away, there is a magnificent forest surrounded by green spaces. This place exists for real and can be found in the province of El Jadida, near Casablanca.This “Camping farm – Riad Green House” has been specially designed by Mr Hamid Ben M’Barek Riad, a Doctor of Engineering and an expert in energy and sustainable development, to invite tourists to “holiday responsibly”. Hamid, with the SwitchMed teams at his side, has gone through an incubation phase and has managed to put together his own green business plan. By analysing the market, focusing on demand and risks, Hamid has carried out “very accurate simulations to minimise the risk of debt”. Based on an eco-construction, Hamid has used the EU Ecolabel as a reference for tourist accommodation, and applies sustainable construction practices, traditionally used in Morocco. This involves the use of timber and natural resources to construct the buildings required, whilst taking into account their energy consumption and using renewable energy wherever possible. By doing so, Hamid’s project is aligned with the triple A (African Agriculture Adaptation) Initiative.Specifically, the project foresees the construction of bioclimatic greenhouses and various seed plantations. Cultivating and owning plantations within the same campsite offering tourist accommodation has numerous benefits: awareness amongst tourists of the organic farming process, support for the local economy, links between artisans and tourists, and offering a sense of being at one with nature. Hamid claims that, perhaps even more importantly, “by raising awareness of ecology, we will be able to transpose this sustainable tourism model to small farmers and thus avoid the rural exodus towards towns, and sales of land to large property developers”. Hamid foresees the creation of a small daily artisans’ market and looks forward to sharing the message throughout the region by travelling in a green van around the local area:“I want to welcome customers who are keen about nature, calm and well-being, all in comfortable and secure surroundings. Eco-tourists will discover the actions required to conserve the biosphere.”The Hamid project is based on three aspects: environment, economy and society. It is expected to employ a dozen people at local level and indirectly create jobs for other locals through the artisans’ market.

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable tourism through the SWITCH programme, for example by focusing on the development of environmental certification for tour operators, hotels and restaurants (with projects in Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Kenya and Mauritius), and on the promotion of energy certification or eco-labelling standards.

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Green practices

Pressures on the supply chain

in Tourism

Green practices

Supporting the Circular Economy

Embedding circularity and reducing the production of waste

Reducing consumption of fresh water for a variety of purposes

Applying sustainable procurement to a wide range of products and services, from furniture and linen, to food & beverage and electrical appliances supplies

Improving energy efficiency measures and reducing energy consumption

Energy consumption

Emissions

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable tourism through the SWITCH programme, for example by focusing on the development of environmental certification for tour operators, hotels and restaurants (with projects in Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Kenya and Mauritius), and on the promotion of energy certification or eco-labelling standards.

Air pollution

Reducing carbon footprint in transportation to and from the destination

Land cover change

Solid waste

Applying sustainable building practices and nature-based solutions when developing tourism infrastructures

Effluents

Sustainably using eco-systems and natural capital for tourist attractions and services

Agriculture is the mainstay of many economies, supporting their food security, export earnings and rural development. The agri-food sector contributes significantly to GDP growth, reduces poverty and provides employment opportunities, especially for women. At the same time, the agri-food sector puts pressure on the environment. The current food systems over-exploit ecosystems leading to land cover change, bio-diversity loss, water and energy consumption, and increased CO2 emissions. As the world's population rises, pressures on the agri-food business and the environment increase. Globalization and a growing middle class in emerging economies drive changes in consumers' choices away from traditional production systems and local food supply chains.Climate change and the agri-food sector are closely interlinked, too. While the agricultural sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, it also faces profound impacts from changing weather conditions – leading to crop failure, soil degradation, impacts on livestock and fisheries, and finally to economic losses.

Agri-food Value Chains

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Agri-food value chain environmental linkages

Supporting the Circular Economy

Links with Environment / Climate change

Manufacturing

Land cover change, species loss, soil degradation; water scarcity, pollution from the use of fertiliser and pesticides, etc.

Soil formation, pollination, nutrient cycles, pest control, regulation of floods, drought, energy and land degradation.

Production

Energy, technology, labour, etc.

Consumption

Dietary impacts, occupational impacts, recreational impacts, etc.

Employment, fuel, fibre, food and others.

Recycling/Re-use

Logistics/Retail

In order to achieve sustainable development, support to agri-based value-chains requires that social, economic and environmental dimensions be thoroughly considered. TheEU Value Chain Analysis for Development (VCA4D) methodologyprovides a framework for analysis and understanding of the agri-food value chains.

Greening the agri-food value-chain provides for increased economic opportunities, innovative processes and operations, upgraded technologies, as well as important social benefits. Promoting sustainable agri-food value-chains in development cooperation entails a combination of interventions: Sustainable value chain approaches promote resource efficiency and the environmental performance of farms and supporting businesses.Farmers need to consider environmental aspects when choosing crops for cultivation and when selecting cultivation systems. Sustainable farming practices can reduce negative externalities (e.g. emissions) and gradually increase positive ones (e.g. carbon sink or biodiversity). Enhancing exportability and both national and international market penetration of green products provides a strong incentive to farmers and producers to uptake sustainable consumption and production. Relevant actions can strengthen compliance with international food hygiene, health and safety standards. The introduction of eco-labelling and certification can boost market acceptance of food products and competitiveness of the producers. Planning for sustainable agri-food value-chains needs to embed circularity and thereby reduce the generation of waste all along the chain.

Agri-food Value Chains

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Supporting the Circular Economy

Promoting sustainable approaches

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable agri-businesses through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by improving the environmental performance of farmers and processors (Indonesia, Morocco, Myanmar, Palestine, Pakistan, Tunisia, Vietnam), by linking producers and markets (Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa), by strengthening food safety and promoting eco-labelling standards (Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Sri Lanka, South Africa), by recycling food waste (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco), by developing saleable by-products (Cambodia, Lebanon, Tunisia), by raising awareness on food, nutrition and consumption (Egypt, Laos, Morocco, Uganda, Spain) and by promoting local green products (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Lebanon).

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Project Story

Agri-foodApproaches

Supporting the Circular Economy

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable agri-businesses through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by improving the environmental performance of farmers and processors (Indonesia, Morocco, Myanmar, Palestine, Pakistan, Tunisia, Vietnam), by linking producers and markets (Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa), by strengthening food safety and promoting eco-labelling standards (Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Sri Lanka, South Africa), by recycling food waste (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco), by developing saleable by-products (Cambodia, Lebanon, Tunisia), by raising awareness on food, nutrition and consumption (Egypt, Laos, Morocco, Uganda, Spain) and by promoting local green products (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Lebanon).

The EU SWITCH AFRICA GREEN Programme: Greening production practices, a story from the Green Horticulture at Lake Naivasha (GOALAN) Project“April 18th 2019 was a great day for me. I made my first supply of tomatoes to Kongoni Lodge in Naivasha. I have been practicing horticulture farming for the last seven years and the biggest challenge is market access. More than half of my harvest would go to waste while the rest would be sold at a throw-away price. I am happy that I will be supplying to this hotel for the next six months.”Ms. Zaineb Malicha, beneficiary of the SWITCH Africa Green ‘GOALAN’ projectZaineb Malicha runs her horticulture business in the Lake Naivasha Basin where water is scarce. In a training provided by the SWITCH Africa Green ‘GOALAN’ project, the 46-year-old learnt sustainable farming practices including on the maximum use of organic fertilizer, the use of certified seeds, the safe use of pesticides (integrated pest management), post-harvest handling, and harvesting the rainwater.GOALAN is short for Green Horticulture at Lake Naivasha in Kenya. The EU supported SWITCHAfrica Green project, implemented by WWF Kenya (lead implementer) and the Collaborate Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP), works towards making the horticultural sector in Kenya sustainable through a large uptake of SCP practices, the provision of green jobs and the reduction of poverty.Lake Naivasha is the largest freshwater lake in Kenya’s Rift valley - the hub of Kenya’s cut flower industry. This unique blend of biodiversity and business requires sound ecological approaches. The GOALAN project goes beyond farming practices and strengthens producer’s entrepreneurial and marketing skills so they can negotiate for better prices, enter farming contracts, and develop green business plans for financing. GOALAN trains farmers on product diversification and promotes eco-certification. With certified products, the farmers have opportunities to enter untapped markets.For those farmers who are ready to scale-up their businesses, the project enables access to finance by creating linkages to financial institutions, such as microfinance institutions (MFIs) and commercial banks (e.g. the Equity Bank). The GOALAN project addresses public institutions, retailers and hotels as potential customers. Green procurement guidelines is a tool that the GOALAN project employs to drive the shift towards sustainable consumption.For Ms. Zaineb Malicha, it has all worked out well. Thanks to the SWITCH Africa Green ‘GOALAN’ project, today, she is sustainably producing her vegetables ensuring food safety, maximising on her income while minimising negative impacts on the environment and has a first contract is in her pocket(SOURCE: WWF Kenya, CSCP)

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Environmentalpressures

Green practices

Primary production

Manufacturing

Retail and comercialisation

Consumption

End-of-life

Re-capture value

Increase value

Green practices

in the Agri-food Sector

Supporting the Circular Economy

Sustainable farming practices

Influence dietary choices

Access to green markets through capacity-building, credit, infrastructureCertification and ecolabelling schemes for raw materials for products

Reduction of food loss and waste

Resource energy and water managementWaste managementSustainable product designCompliance with legislation or standards on hygiene & food safety

Solid waste

Land cover change

Energy consumption

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable agri-businesses through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by improving the environmental performance of farmers and processors (Indonesia, Morocco, Myanmar, Palestine, Pakistan, Tunisia, Vietnam), by linking producers and markets (Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa), by strengthening food safety and promoting eco-labelling standards (Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Sri Lanka, South Africa), by recycling food waste (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco), by developing saleable by-products (Cambodia, Lebanon, Tunisia), by raising awareness on food, nutrition and consumption (Egypt, Laos, Morocco, Uganda, Spain) and by promoting local green products (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Lebanon).

Textiles and clothing are everyday life products making an important contribution to the global economy. The sector provides employment to more than 300 million people along the value chain worldwide (Ellen McArthur Foundation). Globally, the industry sees a rapidly increasing demand. If growth continues as expected, total clothing sales would triple by 2050 (Ellen MacArthur Foundation). As a resource-intensive industry, the textile sector has large social and environmental impact. Textiles production (including cotton farming) is a large water consumer escalating water-scarcity in some regions. Many chemicals used in the production process trigger environmental and health problems. Without proper treatment, the industries’ wastewater constitutes a serious problem. Sourcing wood-based fabrics, like rayon, modal and viscose, increase deforestation. Polyester fabrics discard micro-plastics while washing. Via drinking water and aquatic food chains, micro plastics end up in the human food chain. About 10 percent of total global CO2 emissions emerge from the fashion industry (UNFCC). Approximately 75% of garment workers worldwide are female (ILO). Women’s opportunities are hampered by non-compliance to minimum wages, persistent gender-pay gap and decent work deficits. Due to the sector’s scale and the profile of workers employed, the textile industry nevertheless shows great potential to scale-up both a green economy and a social development.Trends like ‘fast fashion’ with quicker turnaround of new styles and a shorter use time add to the amount of waste generated by the industry. Only 13% of the total material input across the industry is somehow recycled after clothing use. To transform textile waste into raw materials would be a major innovation towards a circular economy.

Textiles

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Environmental impact of the textile industry

Supporting the Circular Economy

Links with Environment / Climate change

The industry’s CO2 emissions are projected to increase drastically, from 2% to 26% of global emissions.

Synthetic clothes release about 35% of the primary microplastics in the world’s oceans.

1kg of cotton garments uses up to 3kg of chemicals.

Avarage garment consumption increases but each garment is kept only half as long.

Dyeing and treatment of textiles produces 20% of global industrial water pollution.

73% of materials used for clothing are landfilled or incinerated.

The European Commission Joint Research Centre has elaborated a report on theEnvironmental Improvement Potential of Textilesproviding detailed recommendations for a greener textile supply chain.

Green economy approaches may address both supply and demand factors across the supply chain, including agricultural practices, textile production processes, product design and functionalities of washing/drying/ironing appliances, as well as sorting and recycling schemes. At the beginning of the supply chain, sustainable farming or forestry practices which reduce or substitute agrochemical use, result in better feedstock. At the processing and production phase, attention needs to be given on resource efficiency. Cleaner production measures can introduce water recycling and the reduction of chemical use and management. Product and process innovations may advance phasing out substances of concern and micro-fibre release. Automation can enhance material efficiency and enable agile made-to-order production cycles. The promotion of good manufacturing as well as occupational health and safety standards strengthens both factories’ competitiveness and workers’ satisfaction. Relevant action towards sustainable textiles can focus on increasing compliance with national and international regulations and introducing companies to Corporate Social Responsibility. The adoption of sustainable procurement can support enterprises to source green feedstock and products. Transparency across the supply chain can be reinforced by certification and eco-labels. Eco-labels or product information can inform the growing group of middle-class consumers who are questioning ‘conventional’ manufacturing processes. Interventions for sustainable textiles can also directly target consumers and thereby tackle demand factors such as consumers’ choices of products/fibres and their care practices in terms of washing, drying and ironing. In the context of fast fashion, actions need to focus on prolonging the lifetime of textiles and the way they are disposed of. The textile value-chain needs to embed circularity. Relevant action may focus on increasing recycling rates, establishing collection channels and thereby generating fresh input for the production.

Textiles

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Supporting the Circular Economy

Promoting sustainable approaches

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable textiles through the SWITCH regional programmes, for example by focusing on implementing cleaner production and efficiency measures (China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam) by strengthening compliance with regulation and occupation measures (Myanmar, Vietnam), by promoting eco-labels (India), by diversifying product design and raw materials (Israel, Morocco), by linking actors across the supply chain (Indonesia, Philippines), by promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (Vietnam) and strengthening consumer awareness of sustainable textiles (India, Mongolia), and by re- and up-cycling materials into fashion products (Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Turkey).

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Project Story

TextilesApproaches

Supporting the Circular Economy

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable textiles through the SWITCH regional programmes, for example by focusing on implementing cleaner production and efficiency measures (China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam) by strengthening compliance with regulation and occupation measures (Myanmar, Vietnam), by promoting eco-labels (India), by diversifying product design and raw materials (Israel, Morocco), by linking actors across the supply chain (Indonesia, Philippines), by promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (Vietnam) and strengthening consumer awareness of sustainable textiles (India, Mongolia), and by re- and up-cycling materials into fashion products (Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Turkey).

The EU SWITCH-Asia programme: Comply to compete – a story from SMART Myanmar“SMART Myanmar helped us to identify inefficiencies in our workflow. When we realized how much money we saved due to these improvements, we were surprised, we had not seen this (before). “ DAW MOE MOE LWIN, GENERAL MANAGER, GOLDEN JASMIN INTIMATES MANUFACTURINGAs a general manager, Daw Moe Moe Lwin oversees the production of pyjamas, track pants, T-shirts and other knit wear at Golden Jasmin Intimates Manufacturing in Yangon. She was impressed with the lessons from the SMART Myanmar project. Since 2013, the EU co- funded SMART Myanmar project has supported business associations and factories to modernize the garment industry with the aim to achieve global manufacturing standards. Global business is one of Ms. Moe Moe Lwin’s goals. She knows that to attract retailers from abroad her factory needs to increase quality and address labour issues, together with health and safety concerns.SMART Myanmar introduced social compliance to the Myanmar garment industry, improved productivity and product quality management. It currently up-scales many of these capacity building programmes to thousands of managers, staff and workers from over 200 garment & footwear factories across the industry. The EU supported project continues to promote SMART Management Systems and SMART Environmental Management across the sector.Golden Jasmin participated in the SMART Myanmar in-house consultancy on productivity improvements, assessment of production techniques and work flow analysis. The recommendation of SMART Myanmar for Golden Jasmin paid off: Golden Jasmin was able to shorten production time, lower costs and thus increase the profit of the company – what for Daw Moe Moe Lwin seems unexpected, but surely welcome.

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Green practices

in the textile supply chain

Pressures on thesupply chain

Green practices

Re-capture value

Increase value

Re-use

Textiles supply chain

Supporting the Circular Economy

Product innovation to convert solid wastes into saleable by-products

Sustainable sourcing

Compliance with legislation or standards on occupational health and safety, EMAS, BREF, etc.

Effluent treatment of wastewater

Certification and eco-labelling schemes for materials and products

Resource, energy and water management

Waste management

Sustainable product design

Environmental management

Re-use, and end-of-life material recycling and recovery

Chemical management

Sustainable farming practices

The EU has supported several projects promoting sustainable textiles through the SWITCH regional programmes, for example by focusing on implementing cleaner production and efficiency measures (China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam) by strengthening compliance with regulation and occupation measures (Myanmar, Vietnam), by promoting eco-labels (India), by diversifying product design and raw materials (Israel, Morocco), by linking actors across the supply chain (Indonesia, Philippines), by promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (Vietnam) and strengthening consumer awareness of sustainable textiles (India, Mongolia), and by re- and up-cycling materials into fashion products (Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Turkey).

Solid waste

Land cover change

Air pollution

Solid waste

Energy consumption

Energy consumption

Effluents

The global production of leather has recorded a steady increase (FAO, 2016). Global footwear production, for example, hit 24.2 billion pairs in 2018, a 2.7% growth over the previous year (World Footwear Yearbook, 2019). Besides footwear, the leather industry supplies the furniture manufacturers, the automotive industry, clothes manufacturers and further leather goods producers. More than half of the world’s supply of leather raw material originates from developing countries (FAO, 2016), contributing to GDP and employment - about 2.5 million people working in the sector in India alone (IJST, 2016). As meat consumption globally rises, the availability of hides and skins as raw materials for the leather industry increases. Disregarding the farming phase, the leather industry causes significant environmental impact due to high water, energy, chemical use and waste generation. The conversion of hides and skins into leather in tanneries is a complex process. If handled incorrectly, the production of leather produces large volumes of hazardous effluent, and waste leather materials that contain chromium in forms that are possibly hazardous to health and the environment. The use of organic solvents and dyes also generates emissions into the air. Contaminated waste from tanneries causes health problems for tannery workers, people living in the immediate neighbourhood of tanneries and in areas downstream from the tanneries.A framework for sustainable leather production exists with recipes, processes, practices and procedures that reduce environmental harm and increase occupational health and safety. As environmental awareness among consumers increases, it can drive future manufacturing towards a Green Economy.

Leather Industry

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Impacts of leather processing and production

Supporting the Circular Economy

Links with Environment / Climate change

Missing protective equipment endangers workers

High resource useHigh green housegas emissions

Poor chemical management leads to toxic effluentsPoor chemical management can cause lethal accidentsHigh load of organic materials in wastewaters

Poor seperation of solid waste leads to loss of tradable by-productsPoor treatment of solid waste can cause contamination of resources, environment and workers

Lacking occupational & health and safety standards

The European CommissionJoint Research Centre has elaborated aBest Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Tanning of Hides and Skinsproviding recommendations for the core leather processes, starting from a raw hide or skin and ending with leather products.

Green economy approaches in the leather industry entail a wide range of interventions from sustainable sourcing and processing of raw material, to sustainable product design, cleaner production, and green supply chain management. Circularity should be a key principle during tannery processes, leading to resource efficiency. Development cooperation action may support pollution control, safe chemicals management and environmental management during the hide preparation and tanning processes. Introducing water-efficient equipment and associated processes, as well as innovative treatment technologies for water reuse and recycling will reduce water consumption and wastewater quantities. The design, construction, and operation of tannery Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) may also be supported, including well established, low cost systems for SME clusters. Circular Economy approaches may push waste minimization strategies through product innovation and eco-design that promote the conversion of solid wastes into saleable by-products.Due attention is needed for human resources. Building appropriate capacities may enable tannery managers and workers to implement environmental management and operate, measure and monitor resource use, effluents, different production areas and modern equipment. Actions can also support companies to comply with environmental legislation and occupational health and safety standards or Best Available Techniques. Transparency across the supply chain can be reinforced by certification and eco-labels. A strong environmental performance, coupled with certified compliance, may create a better image with international buyers and set the basis for a green business strategy.

Leather Industry

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Supporting the Circular Economy

Promoting sustainable approaches

The European CommissionJoint Research Centre has elaborated aBest Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Tanning of Hides and Skinsproviding recommendations for the core leather processes, starting from a raw hide or skin and ending with leather products.

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LeatherApproaches

Supporting the Circular Economy

The European CommissionJoint Research Centre has elaborated aBest Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Tanning of Hides and Skinsproviding recommendations for the core leather processes, starting from a raw hide or skin and ending with leather products.

The EU SWITCH Africa GREEN programme: ‘Greening SMEs Leather Clusters and Leather Tanning Industry‘ project“I saw an opportunity, especially here in Kisumu. I saw huge piles of fish skin lying idle and everybody assumes they had no value. So, I thought I give it a try, if I can convert this trash into money.” Newton Owino, entrepreneur and beneficiary of the EU SWITCH AFRICA Green programme.Located on Lake Victoria, where fishing is big business, Newton Owino’s company turns fish skin into leather. He produces leather jackets, bags, shoes, wallets, caps, purses, sandals, binders, belts and utensils from raw materials obtained from Nile Perch. Every week, about 70 tonnes of fish skins are generated in the region polluting the environment as they decompose - resources that Owino wanted to tap. Owino is one of many entrepreneurs and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have received support from the European Union (EU) funded SWITCH Africa Greenprogramme. The ‘Greening SMEs Leather Clusters and Leather Tanning Industry’project aimed to improve SMEs’ competitiveness and promoted waste management, recycling and reduction in the use of chemicals with a negative impact to the environment. Owino was aware that conventional tanning agents can be hazardous and lethal. He mostly uses organic ash solution to avert bacterial processes on the skins and tans them with a solution made of banana, papaya and bean leaves.Thanks to support received by the SWITCH Africa Green programme, the quality of Owino’s products improved, as they were subjected to conformity assessment tests against international quality standards. Through business networking enabled by SWITCH Africa Green, the Kenyan entrepreneur was able to showcase his products internationally: He convinced buyers in several countries in Europe and North America.Newton Owino wants to move his sector. The trained leather chemist is currently the chair of the Kisumu Leather Dealers Association, established with support from the SWITCH Africa Green. The Association assists its members produce high-quality leather, acquire better bargaining power, increase their margins and obtain access to financing through loans, so that the leather industry in Kisumu can progress. And Newton Owino has ambitions. In the long run, he dreams of establishing a leather college for green tanning only, and the biggest fish leather centre in Africa.

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Green practices

along the leather supply chain

Pressures on the supply chain

Green practices

Re-capture value

Increase value

Re-use

Supporting the Circular Economy

Sustainable sourcing

Resource, energy and water management

Effluent treatment of wastewater

Compliance with legislation or standards on occupational health and safety, EMAS, BREF, etc.

Sustainable product design

Certification and eco-labelling schemes for materials and products

Sustainable farming practices

Chemical management

Product innovation to convert solid wastes into saleable by-products

Re-use, and end-of-life material recycling and recovery

Environmental management

Waste management

Energy consumption

Land cover change

Air pollution

Energy consumption

Solid waste

The European CommissionJoint Research Centre has elaborated aBest Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Tanning of Hides and Skinsproviding recommendations for the core leather processes, starting from a raw hide or skin and ending with leather products.

Solid waste

Effluents

A growing global population coupled with the prevailing urbanisation trends create the right mix for a dynamic building and construction industry. It is expected that built-up areas in developing countries will increase three fold by 2030 (IRP, 2013). More than one-third of global resource consumption is accounted to construction materials and the building sector (Ellen McArthur Foundation 2019). Sand, ubiquitous in construction and industrial production, is the world’s largest resource extracted and traded by volume – though at the expense of nature, with extraction rates surpassing natural sand replenishment rates (UNEP, 2019). Some construction products are a substantial cause of indoor pollution, that may be a risk to the health and well-being of construction workers and building occupants (Brown, et al., 2013). The building and construction industry, including manufacturing of materials and products for building and construction, generates nearly 40% of global energy-related CO2 emissions (UNEP/IEA, 2017). Energy demand from buildings is likely to increase by 50% until 2050 compared with 2015 levels, under business as usual scenarios (UNEP/Global Alliance for Building and Construction, 2018). Decarbonization and dematerialization of the building and construction industry is therefore a significant and needed step towards a green economy.The construction and building sector has great potential for climate change mitigation. The possibilities for energy and emissions savings in buildings remain mostly unexplored as less efficient technologies stay in use, next to a combination of ineffective policies and lack of investments in sustainable buildings and construction in many regions. The IPCC highlights co-benefits of mitigation efforts in the building sector, such as job creation, improved indoor and outdoor air quality, improved climate resilience and adaptive capacity (IPP AR5, 2014).

Building and Construction

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Potential adverse effects of the construction and building industry

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Links with Environment / Climate change

More than 80 % of the total energy consumption in a building’s life is consumed during its use.

Since 2010, global electricity use in buildings has grown by 15 % ≈ by the total electricity consumed in Japan & Korea in 2017.

Total buildings-related CO2 emissions amounted to more than 11 GtCO2 in 2017 ≈ 39 % of the global energy-related emissions, a share that has remained unchanged since 2016.

Increased demand for cooling was responsible for 15 % of the average global peak electricity load in 2017.

10-15 % of the total global demand for aggregates (crushed rock, sand and gravel) is currently extracted from rivers and sea shores causing negative environmental and social impacts.

Only 20–30 % of construction and demolition waste (CDW) is recycled or reused, which is often due to poor design and a lack of information on building contents.

Space cooling energy use increased globally by more than 20 % between 2010 and 2017, while appliance electricity demand grew by 18 % and space heating decreased by around 4 %.

Construction materials and the building sector are responsible for more than one-third of global resource consumption.

CO2 emissions from material use in buildings = 28 % of the total buildings-related CO2 emissions, mostly due to the extensive use and high emissions of cement and steel manufacturing.

The EU Commission published thevoluntary reporting framework “Levels”to improve the sustainability and performance of buildings. The framework targets the whole lifecycle of buildings to address their huge potential for emissions reductions, and efficient and circular resource flows, with the objective to support the health and wellbeing of those for whom the buildings are constructed.

Promoting sustainable construction and buildings in development cooperation targets various stages across the life-cycle of buildings, including their design, use, refurbishment, re-use, and end-of-life material recycling and recovery.Relevant actions can focus on improved building design, by ensuring sustainable material choice, energy and water efficiency, as well as thermal and visual comfort during the building’s operation. Lighthouse projects can showcase passive buildings, exemplifying insulation and ventilation techniques besides eliminating indoor pollutants. Actions reducing the energy consumption and emissions attributed to the use of the buildings may focus on efficient heating, cooling and lighting systems. Efficiency schemes in development cooperation can also address lifetime extension and waste reduction.Refurbishment, further to extending the lifetime of a building, can also be a cost-effective strategy to improve energy performance. The implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) enables construction professionals to quantify the embodied environmental impact and life-cycle cost performance of buildings. BIM also enables planning for potential future re-use and recycling of demolition materials. Sustainable consumption in the form of high-performance, low-carbon buildings, can be promoted through the design and implementation of complementary policies and market incentives, including mandatory frameworks focusing on building codes and procurement rules.Moreover, certification and labelling schemes for materials, as well rating systems for buildings, can be a driver for both consumers and developers, drawing their attention to green buildings.

Building and Construction

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Promoting sustainable approaches

The EU has supported several projectsthrough theEU SWITCH programmespromoting a sustainable building and construction industry, for example by focusing on the development of alternative, efficient building materials (Bangladesh, Lebanon Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Western Sahara), bypromoting sustainable housing technologies and services (Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Thailand), byengaging public-private partnershipsbetween construction bureaus and developers to up-scale green buildings (China), by building capacity with construction workers, planners and architects (China, Bangladesh), by advancingthe re-use of building and demolition material (Israel, Mongolia), by setting up Green Building Councils (Palestine), by promoting green roofs and walls (Egypt, Tunisia) and by promoting carbon accounting and certification of building materials(Malaysia).

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The EU has supported several projectsthrough theEU SWITCH programmespromoting a sustainable building and construction industry, for example by focusing on the development of alternative, efficient building materials (Bangladesh, Lebanon Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Western Sahara), bypromoting sustainable housing technologies and services (Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Thailand), byengaging public-private partnershipsbetween construction bureaus and developers to up-scale green buildings (China), by building capacity with construction workers, planners and architects (China, Bangladesh), by advancingthe re-use of building and demolition material (Israel, Mongolia), by setting up Green Building Councils (Palestine), by promoting green roofs and walls (Egypt, Tunisia) and by promoting carbon accounting and certification of building materials(Malaysia).

The EU SWITCH-Asia Programme: Cheaper, cleaner, greener – a story from the Sustainable Building project"I liked the hollow-block; it can be a good alternative to fire-bricks for our construction work.”Md. Abul Bashar, beneficiaty of the EU SWITCH-Asia ’SusBuild’ projectMd. Abul Bashar has good reasons to like the alternative bricks and blocks developed by the EU-funded SWITCH-Asia ’Promoting Sustainable Building in Bangladesh’ (SusBuild)project. The new blocks cut overall construction costs by around 25 per cent. The raw material and production are green in comparison to traditional burned clay bricks. They are made of dredged river sand, stone dust and a small percentage of cement, rather than agricultural top soil, and do not need coal or wood to dry.SusBuild delivered what Bangladesh’s capital Dhaka and other urban hubs urgently need: an option to cut air pollution and energy use from traditional brick kilns.SusBuild aims at transforming the market in the construction sector by offering a more environment-friendly, affordable and marketable building material. Targeting manufacturers, the project develops business models to ensure up-scaling of green brick production. In case needed, the project links businesses to financial institutions to avail initial business support. To stimulate demand for alternative bricks, the project engages with potential house builders, real estate developers and individual homeowners. Acceptability of the new bricks is a pre-condition for market penetration. The project targets a wide range of stakeholders, including masons, sub-contractors, civil engineers, architects, urban planners and policy makers. Through the project’s awareness raising activities, judicial experts and policy makers gain a better understanding of existing policy gaps in both the building code and the brick manufacturing act. The SWITCH-Asia project has suceeded to include provisions for Alternative Bricks in the 2019 Brick Manufacturing and Brick Kiln Establishment (Control) (Amendment) Bill, aiming to increase the production and use of Alternative Bricks.As a mason, Md. Abul Bashar, benefited from technology transfer and capacity building activities conducted under the project. He participated in trainings on alternative construction technologies for masons and now has ideas how to boost acceptability of the new material: model constructions using alternative bricks.

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Green practices

Construction and Building

Supporting the Circular Economy

Refurbishment to extend the lifetime of a building

Certification and labelling schemes for materials, as well as rating systems for buildings

Re-use, end-of-life material, recycling and recovery

Compliance with Green Building Codes

Sustainable Design enabling smart technology

Elimination of indoor pollutants

Efficiency through insulation

Sustainable material choice

Sustainable building practices

Sustainable consumption with efficient appliances

Building Information Modelling

Sustainable consumption with efficient appliances

Facade or roof greening

Renewable energy

The EU has supported several projectsthrough theEU SWITCH programmespromoting a sustainable building and construction industry, for example by focusing on the development of alternative, efficient building materials (Bangladesh, Lebanon Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Western Sahara), bypromoting sustainable housing technologies and services (Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Thailand), byengaging public-private partnershipsbetween construction bureaus and developers to up-scale green buildings (China), by building capacity with construction workers, planners and architects (China, Bangladesh), by advancingthe re-use of building and demolition material (Israel, Mongolia), by setting up Green Building Councils (Palestine), by promoting green roofs and walls (Egypt, Tunisia) and by promoting carbon accounting and certification of building materials(Malaysia).

The Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) industry is at the heart of digitalization. In 2016 alone, the annual global consumption of new EEE amounted to 60 Million metric tonnes (Baldé et al., 2017) – with an upward trend. Developing countries typically show growth rates from 10% to 25% (Baldé et al., 2017). Fridges, washing machines, electric furnaces, electric centralized heating units, and flat panel TVs were products that had the largest absolute growth of consumption in terms of weight. Innovation drives consumers’ choices resulting in even shorter replacement cycles for EEE, in particular for mobile phones and computers. Digitalization provides great opportunities for sustainable development with its options for dematerialization. At the same time, information technology has an environmental impact of increasing significance. Material and energy consumption increases, and electronic waste - the so-called e-waste - has become one of the fastest-growing waste streams. E-Waste can contain hazardous substances. If treated inadequately, it poses considerable environmental and health risks related with chemicals pollution.By 2040, carbon emissions and emissions from the use of EEE will increase to 14% of total global emissions (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2019). Most EEE is not designed to facilitate adherence to environmental principles, including circularity and the waste hierarchy. Natural resource use efficiency, material recovery and recycling are still challenges of the sector. Plastics in EE products, for example, comprise 20% of material use, and with eco-design, significant environmental and financial savings could be achieved (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2019).

Electrical and Electronic Equipment sector

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Potential adverse effects of theElectrical and Electronic Equipement (EEE) Industry

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Links with Environment / Climate change

By 2040, carbon emissions and emissions from the use of EEE will increase to 14 %.

E-Waste can contain hazardous substances.

If treated inadequately, it poses considerable environmental and health risks related to chemical pollution.

Natural resource use efficiency, material recovery and recycling are still challenges in the sector.

Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing waste streams.

Most EEE is not designed to facilitate adherence to environmental principles.

The EU has provided strategic regulatory guidance through: The Directive on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE Directive), the Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS Directive),the European Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and theEcodesign Directive, providing rules for improving the environmental performance of products.

Actions for a sustainable Electrical and Electronic Equipment industry in development cooperation target various phases of the supply chain, from product design, to production processes and end-of life material recycling and recovery. Strengthening product innovation is required to achieve material efficiency and circular design. Circular designs improve reparability, upgradability, modularity and ease of disassembly, thus allowing recovery of components without destroying them, which in turn enables remanufacturing. Greening the Electrical and Electronic Equipment supply chain can also include actions addressing energy and resource efficiency during production. Improving for example, energy efficiency standards for product groups can be a strong lever to more efficient EEE. Actions can support companies to comply with environmental legislation, occupational health and safety standards or international requirements, including the WEEE, RoHS and REACH Directives. To address the E-waste challenge, development cooperation can also link secondary raw material supply and demand. For example, support could focus on establishing adequate recycling infrastructure for E-waste, developing incentive schemes to upscale collection, engaging scrap dealer associations.By promoting the formalisation of informal businesses, development action can advance safe working conditions for those dismantling hazardous E-waste. Targeting businesses with Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) can encourage producers taking over the responsibility for the end-of-life management of their used products. Planning for a sustainable electrical and electronic equipment supply chain can also include generating alternative business models that focus on the use of goods and services rather than their ownership, on extending product value through take-back and re-use programmes, and on extending resource value, including by means of promoting the use of secondary raw material, and decreasing or replacing virgin material altogether.

Electrical and ElectronicEquipment sector

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Promoting sustainable approaches

The EU has supported several projects promoting a sustainableelectrical and electronic industry through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by focusing on the development of efficiency standards for product groups and across the production process (China, Thailand), by focusing on product innovation (Thailand, China), by improving resource efficiency during production (China) and by strengthening E-Waste recycling (Egypt, Jordan, Malta, Palestine, Tunisia) and establishing E-Waste collection systems (China, India, Ghana).

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The EU has supported several projects promoting a sustainableelectrical and electronic industry through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by focusing on the development of efficiency standards for product groups and across the production process (China, Thailand), by focusing on product innovation (Thailand, China), by improving resource efficiency during production (China) and by strengthening E-Waste recycling (Egypt, Jordan, Malta, Palestine, Tunisia) and establishing E-Waste collection systems (China, India, Ghana).

The EU switchMed: Tafkeek Resource Efficiency & Sustainable Waste Management”SwitchMed for me is all about empowerment, innovation and turning ideas into projects”.Tasneem Abuhijleh, operator of an e-waste disposal facility and benificiary of switchMedTasneem Abuhijleh noticed that Idhna, a town outside Hebron the West Bank, received vast quantities of E-Waste. E-waste was disposed of in open fields. Valuable materials were not recovered, instead toxic emissions were leaking into water and soil. Still at university writing her master thesis, Tasneem Abuhijleh realized that she wanted to work in environmental protection. Today, Tasneem Abuhijleh is a SwitchMed incubated green entrepreneur, founder of Tafkeek. Tafkeek in Arabic means dismantling. Abuhijleh’s business wants to dismantle and treat e-waste to reduce local contamination, and her ambitions are high. In the long run, she envisions to develop a formal e-waste recycling market in the West Bank.SwitchMed delivers a training programme to entrepreneurs across the Meditarrean to develop green business ideas. Tasneem Abuhijleh was one of the 2700 trained entrepreneurs. Next to the training she is receiving face-to-face support from a local mentor, a private sector development specialist that helped her elaborate her business plan. As part of the incubation phase, Tasneem will receive some specialised technical assistance from external experts, too. Under Abuhijleh’s business plan, a monthly collection system will be set up to gather electronic equipment from large buildings, companies and repair shops. Tafkeek’s dismantling facility will then extract the valuable materials in a sustainable way, before selling the end product to recycling companies.With support by SwitchMed, Tasneem Abuhijleh was able to secure financial assistance to set up her company. Tasneem Abuhijleh’s initiative drives change in Palestine as it is the first e-waste facility in the country.

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ResourceInput

Supply Chain Steps

Greenpractices

Re-use

Recycling recovery

Re-manufacturing

Green practices

Electric and Electronic Equipment Industry

Supporting the Circular Economy

Recovery of secondary raw materials

Waste management

Take-back schemes

Retail & Commercialisation

Adequate recycling infrastructure

Material and resource efficiency

Mandatory energy efficiency standards

Occupational health and safety

Use

Resource, energy and water management

Eco-labels and certification

Raw material extraction

Re-manufacturing

Manufacturing

Compliance with legislation & standards

Extending product value through re-use

Collection mechanisms and incentives for collection

Environmental management

Sustainable product design

Formalisation of informal e-waste businesses

End of life

Alternative business models (ie. use versus ownership)

Environmentally sound mining, extraction & recycling technologies

The EU has supported several projects promoting a sustainableelectrical and electronic industry through theEU SWITCH programmes, for example by focusing on the development of efficiency standards for product groups and across the production process (China, Thailand), by focusing on product innovation (Thailand, China), by improving resource efficiency during production (China) and by strengthening E-Waste recycling (Egypt, Jordan, Malta, Palestine, Tunisia) and establishing E-Waste collection systems (China, India, Ghana).

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Photo credits Unless specified in the image, all pictures are © Shutterstock Sources Infographic on textilesMc Kinsey www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/A-New- Textiles-Economy_Full-Report_Updated_1-12-17.pdf Boucher, J. & Friot, D. Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: a Global Evaluation of Sources. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 43pp (2017). Sources photos on leatherhttps://www.la-croix.com/Economie/Au-Kenya-restes-poisson- donnent-objets-mode-cuir-2018-07-15-1300955169 https://face2faceafrica.com/article/kenyan-entrepreneur-builds- 100000-business-selling-leather-made-from-fish-skin

© European Union, 2019 - Responsibility for the information and views set out in this publication lies entirely with the authors

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