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Judo was originally created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano as a physical, mental, and moral pedagogy in Japan. It is generally categorized as a modern martial art
Every fighter must wear a kimono and belt.
One full point:
Award of ippon decides the winner and ends the match. Ippon is awarded for a successful throw performed with control and power or for a pin lasting 20 seconds. Submission by strangulation or application of an arm lock at the elbow joint also results in ippon.
One half point:
Awarded for a successful throw lacking one of the ippon elements, or for a pin lasting 10 to 19 seconds.
The competition area must be padded with tatami. The minimum allowable size is 14 x 14 meters. The match takes place in an 8 x 8 meter to 10 x 10 meter zone within this larger area. The surrounding space acts as a safety zone. When two competition areas are side by side, there must be at least a 3-meter safety zone between them.
Two types of penalties may be awarded. A shido is awarded for minor rule infringements. A shido can also be awarded for a prolonged period of non-aggression. Recent rule changes allow for the first shidos to result in only warnings. If there is a tie, the number of Shido's for each player are not used to determine the winner.After three shidos are given, the victory is given to the opponent. This is an indirect hansoku-make and does not result in expulsion from the tournament.
A tatami is a type of mat used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms. Tatami are made in standard sizes, twice as long as wide, about 0.9 m by 1.8 m depending on the region. In martial arts, tatami are the floor used for training in a dojo and for competition.