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It’s thought that the site of modern Lisbon has been occupied since the early Neolithic period, with evidence of Pre-Celtic homesteads still visible in some parts of the city. Lisbon’s Neolithic origins make it one of Europe’s oldest cities.,Lisbon is settled during the Neolithic Period,6500-4500BC,Lisbon is occupied by the Romans,In the wake of the Roman occupation of Iberia in the 2nd century BC, Lisbon became a self-ruling state within the Roman province of Lusitania. It was at this time that countless Romanesque buildings and fortifications were added to Lisbon, including the Cassian Baths, stone city walls and several temples dedicated to Jupiter.,202BC,START,LISBON'S PAST,,In the early years of the Middle Ages, much of Iberia was settled by invading forces from North Africa and the Middle East, particularly Moors, Berbers and Arabs. These settlers built many mosques and houses, and would go on to rebuild Lisbon’s defensive city walls. The Moorish influence on Lisbon remains evident across the city, particularly in the historic Alfama district, which survived the devastating 1755 Lisbon earthquake.,Lisbon is invaded by Moorish forces,Barbarians take Olissipo as the Roman Empire,409BC,As the Roman Empire’s power and influence dwindled, Olissipo was invaded by several barbarian tribes, including the Sarmatians, Vandals and Alans. Eventually, the Germanic Suebi tribe would drive the Romans from Iberia for good, establishing the Kingdom of Gallaecia in their wake.,Lisbon prospers as 'Olissipo' under Roman rule,80BC,As Roman influence continued across Iberia, Lisbon (then called ‘Olissipo’) flourished as an important trading post on the Atlantic seaboard. The Romans developed prosperous trade routes between Olissipo, Britannia and Germania, with the Lisbon to Cornwall passage one of the most lucrative in the Western World.,In the wake of the Great Crusades across Europe and the Middle East, a band of knights led by Alfonso I of Portugal besieged Lisbon and eventually conquered it, driving out the Moors and returning it to Christian rule,1147,Crusader knights beseige and conquer Lisbon,Lisbon is devastated by the 1755 earthquake,Throughout history, Lisbon has been affected by several major earthquakes, but the very worst came on 1 November 1755. This powerful quake is thought to have killed around 40,000 people, and destroyed over 80% of the city’s buildings and infrastructure. Among the most important buildings destroyed in the 1755 quake was Ribeira Palace and the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos.,1 November1755,Thriving as part of a newly-formed Iberian territory, with close trading links to Britain, Lisbon was named the capital of Portugal in 1255. In the subsequent decades, the city continued to flourish, with its first official university built in 1290,1255,Lisbon is named capital of Portugal,Portugal's neutrality during WWII led Lisbon to become one of Europe's largest major neutral ports,During WWII, Lisbon was among just a small handful of neutral seaports in Europe, making it a major gateway for refugees fleeing the persecution of Nazi Germany. It’s estimated that over 100,000 people fled Europe to the USA through Lisbon during WWII.,1939-1945,Lisbon's Golden Age begins in the 16th century,1545,With the dawn of Portugal’s ‘Age of Discovery’, Lisbon became one of the world’s most powerful and influential cities, and one of the great trade cities linking Europe with Africa. It was at this time that Manueline architecture flourished in the city, including the construction of Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery. ,6 AUGUST 711,Portuguese Restoration War restores Lisbon's independence,In 1580, Portugal lost its independence to Spain, and subsequently became a part of the Kingdom of Spain for the next six decades. In 1640, Portuguese independence was restored during the Restoration War, which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.,1640,A GLIMPSE INTO,The Liberal Movement sees Lisbon become a cultural powerhouse in Europe,1830,Portugal’s Liberal Movement altered Lisbon’s cityscape dramatically, with the construction of the now-famous Baixa district, which included several new theatres, bookstores, clubs and shops.,Lisbon becomes a fortified city,Lisbon has long been one of the most heavily-fortified cities of the Iberian Peninsula, with evidence to suggest that the city’s Castelo Hill was home to an Iron Age hilltop fortress. Over the centuries to come, countless other fortifications were added to defend Portugal’s sovereignty.,800BC,Lisbon is named European Capital of Culture,1994,In 1994, Lisbon became the European Capital of Culture, an accolade which helped cement its place among the continent’s most culturally-rich capital cities.