Created on September 30, 2019
stand up for those who defend our human rightsto housing, land and right to the city
THE STRUGGLE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND, SPECIFICALLY, FOR THE DEFENCE OF PEOPLE’S HOUSING AND LAND HAS BEEN THE CAUSE OF PERSECUTION AND CRIMINALISATION BY POWERFUL FORCES THAT TREAT LAND AND HOUSING AS A COMMODITY
Click on each icon to know the STORY behind the PERSECUTIONS OF defenders OF OUR HABITAT RIGHTS
SHARE WITH US OTHER CASES OF THREATS AGAINST
Luis D'Elía - expresidente de la Federación de Tierra y Vivienda de Buenos Aires, ArgentinaPerseguido y encarcelado en febrero de 2019 por la movilización para esclarecer el asesinato del líder barrial Martín "El Oso" CisnerosContextoEl día 25 de junio se cumplieron 15 años del asesinato de Martín "El Oso" Cisneros a manos de un "dealer" relacionado con la comisaría 24 de La Boca. El asesinato del militante barrial, profundamente comprometido con las demandas barriales, produjo un inmediato y espontáneo reclamo vecinal que fue acompañado entre otros por el entonces Diputado Provincial y Presidente de la Federación Tierra y Vivienda, Luis D'Elía. El masivo reclamo vecinal fue la excusa del Gobierno de Macri y de la Embajada de Estados Unidos para encarcelar a nuestro compañero Luis D'Elía. En el país se calcula que hubo más de 500 reclamos de este tipo, y un solo preso, solo Luis D'Elia fue condenado por esto, después de 15 años. La exigencia de la embajada de Estados Unidos a Macri consta en el cable n° 1222 del capítulo WikiLeaks dedicado a la Argentina. Luis D'Elía, perdió peso, más de 30 kg en muy poco tiempo. El frío y la humedad de su celda se expresan en su cara, en su respiración. Si sumamos a su diabetes (doblemente insulino dependiente), a su triple baypass y su cardiopatía, las terribles condiciones carcelarias que debe enfrentar hoy Luis, seguramente el resultado será la muerte. Así de crudo. Así de impiadoso. Quien pude negar la prisión domiciliaria a un hombre mayor de 60 años y con las condiciones de salud como en este caso. Exigimos la libertad de Luis D'Elía de forma inmediata, y la libertad de todos los presos políticos.Luis D'Elía está perseguido judicialmente. Actualmente está preso por haber liderado una protesta por el asesinato de un militante social.Su condena está siendo recurrida ante la Suprema Corte de Justicia y por el Foro Por la Libertad de los Presos Políticos.
Gültan Kışanak, Diyarbakır's arrested co-Mayors (Turkey)Solidarity with Diyarbakır’s arrested co-Mayors and call to respect local democracy in TurkeyGültan Kışanak, co-mayor of the city of Diyarbakır, Turkey, was sentenced this year to 14 yeairs in prison after being arrested in 2016 for suposed ties with terrorist Kurdish organizations.ContextOn 20 June 2017, the trial against the arrested Co-Mayor of Diyarbakır, Gültan Kışanak, took place under a context of state of emergency in Turkey. According to the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, her detention is contrary to human rights standards set forth in international treaties ratified by Turkey, such as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms or the European Charter of Local Self-Government. In relation with these organizations, the UCLG Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights of United Cities and Local governments gave a follow up of the situation of the Diyarbakır Co-Mayors and other arrested public officials and representatives, inviting local governments and partners to join a common mobilization calling to safeguard local democracy in Turkey. This call was joined by HIC.TheCongress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe has recently passed aResolution and aRecommendation expressing its concernregarding the situation of local democracy in Turkey. Both documents were adopted after afact-finding mission conducted by two rapporteurs on October and December 2016. The decision to conduct this mission was taken in view to analysethe consequences of the emergency legislation introduced following the attempted military coup on 15 July 2016, whichclearly had an impacton the situation of local elected representatives as well as on the conditions in which local democracy is exercised in Turkey. In their explanatory memorandum, the two rapporteurs argue that some of the measures taken after the state of emergency, such as the detention and removal of locally elected mayors and their replacement with officials appointed by central authorities, contradicts some parts of theEuropean Charter of Local Self-Government regarding local democracy, representation and self-government rights, thusTurkey’s own international obligations, since its Constitution stipulates that emergency decreesshould not violate Turkey’s obligations under international law.The rapporteurs also note that Turkish authorities have a tendency to refer to relatively distinct factors under the term “terrorist”; an important remark when considering that most of the mayors were arrested on terrorism charges and that the legal grounds of these accusations might not fall in line of the rest of the Council of Europe members, asit has been recently noted by its own Human Rights Commissioner. In light of these findings, the Congress expressed its concern on howthese measures are seriously risking pluralist democracy in Turkey, noting that “the detentions of elected mayors (…) in more than 50 municipalities in Southeast Turkey has effectively suspended the practical exercise of local democracy in that region”More info: HIC Mena website
Threats against Dr. Khadim H. Dahot, human rights defender in PakistanSupport needed from the international human rights/humanitarian networks to spread the message to human rights bodies/organizations to generate international voices to protect human rights defender and his family’s life in PakistanDr. Khadim H. Dahot works for the rights of deprived and marginalized communities for peace and social harmony to counter violent extremism. Khadim Hussain Dahot is an Advocate of High Courts in Sindh, Founder Trustee/Managing Director of the esteemed organization Sewa Development Trust Sindh – SDTS, International Member of Amnesty International, and affiliated with national and international social and human rights organizations. Since 2003, he has been working for the rights of deprived and marginalized communities for peace and social harmony to counter violent extremism (a detailed profile is given at the end of this appeal). Please visit his Facebook wall for people’s reactions.Context: "My Life & My Family’s Lives are in Danger""I had received many threats for the last 16 years, but those threats were low – not violent; this time, on 31 Aug. 2019, I was attacked over my house by a mob on the instigation and in the name of blasphemy – especially in the days of Holy Muharram (in the month of Holy Muharram, the Muslim event belongs to Shia Sect, to mourn the incidents of Karbala and unite for rallies, agitations, the sect people become are more aggressive and violent, if they endeavor to communicate any disinformation in the name of blasphemy). I and my family lives are in danger due to an attack by a mob on 31 August 2019, at about 11:00 pm, over my house, while chanting slogans of a sect, and who used abusive language, as well as causing fists and kick blows to me, my father and other family members. On intervention of neighbors and some police constables, the mob went away – while issuing murderous threats to me and my other family members; such facts were immediately reported to concerned police authorities for maximum legal protection and lawful action against the involved culprits...but neither protection has been provided to me or my family – nor has any action been taken by the police or other authorities in Pakistan. The reason is the influential (feudal) people are against my social and humanitarian work, they do not accept that I work for community awareness and social services in the area, and in the name of sectarian violence, they attacked me and my family to bow before them and leave the social work. At the time of attack over my house, the local media journalists reached at spot and reported the incident in newspapers published in daily newspapers dated 2 Sept. 2019, and on social media (Facebook and Twitter), the news on facebook went viral and sympathy – along with demands for protection messages from across the world were posted. This attack was a well-planned violent attack. Before this incident, various murderous threats were also received: on 23.2.2004 an application was submitted before District Police Office Khaipur, on 18-9-2018 an application was submitted to Deputy Inspector General of Police Sukkur for the case registration and legal protection but all in vain, because the accused have strong political and religious support. Now the threats are at an extreme high level and need urgent action. The culprits have started issuing messages publicly – with allegations of blasphemy, personal character assassination, and targeting Sewa Development Trust Sindh – SDTS in the name of sectarian violence. (All of their online messages are placed on social media).About Dr. Khadim H. Dahot work"Sewa Development Trust Sindh-SDTS", a non-profit organization whose mission is to provide education, health and empowerment to the underprivileged and underserved women, youth, and children, through live-streaming technology and provision of learning facilities in far-flung areas in Sindh province of Pakistan. SDTS is the organization having special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) since 2014. For the last 16 years, he has been uncovering in a peaceful manner numerous human rights violations perpetrated in the area: reporting abuses; reporting family members of victims whose human rights have been violated by those family members; and exposing and fighting human rights violations. Being a lawyer, Khadim stands up in court to defend them; and being a professional human rights worker, he works to end human rights violations in the country. Khadim has continuously worked for the rights of deprived and marginalized communities for peace and social harmony to counter violent extremism and have initiated many innovative and important activities in extending shelter support and help to the poor, needy, and vulnerable families through building leadership skills for rural youth of Sindh, building peace projects, strengthening international relations, promoting education and health for all. I work to empower youth and women by developing new peace and humanitarian leaders and creating awareness regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, fundamental rights and the UN convention, treaties to sensitive civil society workers. I have conducted hundreds of capacity-building trainings for the community, trained youth on active citizenship, peace ambassadors and ilm-ambassadors, and I have supported more than 2 million families in social development and legal support.For more info:Visit Khadim’s Facebook profileAbout Sewa Development Trust Sindh work plz click linkPictures and protests can be viewed and download
Verdict in Sahrawi trial marred by failure to adequately investigate torture claimsFailure to adequately investigate torture claims of 23 Sahrawi activistsContext:“The failure of judicial authorities, over more than six years, to adequately investigate torture allegations in this case is a stain on today’s verdict.” The Gdim Izik tent camp had been set up in the the Western Sahara in early October 2010 by Sahrawis protesting against discrimination, marginalization and a lack of jobs and adequate housing. The camp was active until the 8th November when security forces dismantled the camp and violent confrontations broke out.In July 2017, the Rabat Court of Appeals sentenced 23 Saharawi activists to prison in connection with clashes that followed the forcible dismantlement of a protest camp in Gdim Izik, Western Sahara, in 2010, killing 11 members of the security forces and two Sahrawi protesters. During the trial most defendants told the court they were tortured into ‘confessing’ or incriminating themselves or others, allegations which were not further investigated by the court.The activists were charged with terms ranging from two years to life imprisonment.On September 17th 2019, the prisioners have announced that they were begining a 48 hour hunger strike to expose the violation of rights during their imprisonment, specially due extended stays in solitary confinement. They ask for and the transfer of the other Saharawi political prisoners to prisons closer to the places of residence of their families and appeal to international authorities to pressure the Morroccan government to release them.More info:HIC-HLRN website
Abdullah Abu Rahmah, one of the central organizers of the popular resistance protests against the separation barrier in the West Bank village of Bil’in was convicted in 2014 of obstructing the work of a soldier by an Israeli military court.Context:Abu Rahmah, who was recognized by the European Union as a “human rights defender” dedicated to non-violence, previously served over a year in prison for organizing “illegal marches” as well as for “incitement.” All political demonstrations are illegal for Palestinians under Israeli military law.More info: www.hlrn.org/news
Milagro Sala,Jujuy, Argentina.Contexto- En 2001 fue fundadora de laOrganización Barrial Túpac Amaru, agrupación política que defendía los derechos de grupos populares en la provincia de Jujuy, Túpac Amaru se dedica a la construcción de viviendas así como la provisión de algunos servicios públicos y el fortalecimiento de cooperativas, posteriormente algunos militantes se organizaron y fundaron el Partido por la Soberanía Popular.Tras ser diputada el 21 de octubre de 2013 sufrió un intento de asesinato donde dos militantes murieron.
Tep Vanny (Phnom Penh, Cambodia) fought the evictions of thousands of residents from lakeside land in Phnom Penh. She was sentenced in 2017 to 2½ years for her role in a protest outside Prime Minister residence in 2013 and later released in 2018.The conviction came despite eyewitness testimony that neither Vanny or other protesters had committed acts of violence.Vanny, fought the evictions of thousands of residents from lakeside land in Phnom Penh to make way for a luxury real estate project Home to 15 million people, impoverished Cambodia has a long history of disputes over land rights, many dating back to the 1970s, when the Khmer Rouge regime destroyed property records. Between 2000 and 2014, about 770,000 Cambodians — more than 6 percent of the population — were affected by land conflicts, according to charges presented by human rights lawyers at the International Criminal Court in The Hague.She was sentenced in 2017 to 2½ years for her role in a protest outside Prime Minister residence in 2013. She was found guilty of inciting violence and assaulting security guards while trying to deliver a petition to Hun Sen on the land dispute. The conviction came despite eyewitness testimony that neither Vanny or other protesters had committed acts of violence. It was criticized by campaigners as another step in a crackdown on dissent.For more info please visit HIC-HLRN website
Repression of land rights defenders and the human rights violations and abuses suffered by local communities inin the Malen Chiefdom (Pujehun district, Southern Sierra Leone)This year, the police arrested 15 land rights activists of the community based organisation MALOA (Malen Land Owners and Users Association) from Sierra Leone. This followed police and military raids carried out in January where people were beaten, houses were vandalised and properties were looted.Context:Since 2011 the multinational company SOCFIN has acquired more than 18,000 hectares of land for an industrial palm oil plantation in the Malen Chiefdom (Pujehun district, Southern Sierra Leone). Since then, a land conflict has raged between SOCFIN, the local authorities and the communities.2019 One month after violent incidents in the SOCFIN plantations in Sierra Leone leading to brutal repression by security forces, the death of two people and 15 people arrested, Sierra Leonean and international civil society organisations urge the government of Sierra Leone and the company to immediately end the repression of land rights defenders and the human rights violations and abuses suffered by local communities. The conflict recently escalated to new levels of violence. On January 21st, following a skirmish between community people and the police and military protecting the assets of SOCFIN, two people were shot dead. Shortly after, police and military raids were carried out in the surrounding villages. People were beaten, houses were vandalised and properties were looted. Hundreds of people fled their homes. The police also arrested 15 people, adding to a long list of arbitrary arrests and judicial harassment committed against land rights activists of the community based organisation MALOA (Malen Land Owners and Users Association).More info of this case atHIC-HLRN website
A 2016 Thai court verdict ruled the authorities did not break the law in burning Karen People's properties to forcefully evict them from Kaeng Krachan National Park. Indigenous rights groups have called for effective redress for the affected communities saying that the ruling violated international human rights law.Thailand’s Administrative Court issued a ruling that the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation was within its rights to burn Karen properties in Bang Kloi village within the National Park in 2011. The court dismissed all the demands of the Karens, who filed the case in 2014, besides compensation for the loss of their properties. The court ordered the Department to pay compensation of 10,000 THB (approx. 287 USD) each to the six Karen plaintiffs against their initial demands of 100,000 THB each. The Department has refused to pay even the meager compensation and pledged to appeal against it. In its verdict, the court stated that because the Karens had ‘encroached’ upon forestland to expand their community and farms, the Department’s decision to burn down their homes was permissible under National Park Act 1961. The court also barred the community from returning to the land, which the Karens claim belonged to their ancestors. It is undisputed that the plaintiffs, including a 105-year-old Karen spiritual leader, lived in the lands all their lives until the evictions began, generations before the National Park was established in 1981.Karen representatives today vowed to appeal against a 2016 Thai court verdict that ruled the authorities did not break the law in burning their properties to forcefully evict them from Kaeng Krachan National Park. Indigenous rights groups have called for effective redress for the affected communities saying that the ruling violated international human rights law.More info at HIC-HLRN website
Context- The brazilian housing activist Preta Ferreira and other three housing activists (Sidney Ferreira Silva, her brother; Edinalva Silva Franco Pereira and Angélica dos Santos Lima) had been under preventive detention for since june ,under charges of extortion and criminal association in what social movements see as a clear persecution of housing movements in São Paulo, Brazil. Angélica was liberated in Spetember, while Preta and Sidney were fred on the 10th of October, when a Habeas Corpus (previously denied) was finally granted to them.More info:https://www.brasildefato.com.br/2019/09/10/where-is-justice-in-brazil-housing-activist-asks-after-more-than-70-days-in-prison/"Where is Justice in Brazil?" housing activist asks after more than 70 days in prison | Brasil de Fato"I was arrested for fighting injustice. It's in my veins. Now I have to face it head-on every day." That's how Jacine Ferreira da Silva, also known...Brasil de Fato
Haydee Carmen Cerron Cardenas, President of the association "Protectores Ambientales de la Flor y Lomas de Amancaes" in Lima, Peru, has suffered death threats for defending the Lomas de Amancaes, a fragile ecosystem in danger of extinction due to land-grabing for Lima's urban expansion.-----------Trinidad Modesta Pérez Palacios, Secretary of the association "Protectores Ambientales de la Flor y Lomas de Amancaes" in Lima, Peru,has suffered threats and a kidnaping attempt by groups involved with land-grabing and development of this protected land.-----------Maria Cecilia Janampa Cerron, Treasurer of the association "Protectores Ambientales de la Flor y Lomas de Amancaes" in Lima, Peru, has suffered threats and verbal agressions for defending the Lomas de Amancaes, a fragile ecosystem in danger of extinction due to land-grabing for Lima's urban expansion.----------Juana Ccama Quispe, member of the association "Protectores Ambientales de la Flor y Lomas de Amancaes" in Lima, Peru, has suffered threats, physical and verbal agressions, as well as false theft threats by groups involved with land-grabing and development of this protected land.--------Ascencio Vasquez Gonzales, President of the "Asociación Ecologica lomas de Primavera" in Lima, Peru, has suffered threats for defending the Lomas de Primavera, a fragile ecosystem in danger of extinction due to land-grabing for Lima's urban expansion.------Cristobal Guevara Quispe, Secretary of the "Asociación Ecologica lomas de Primavera" in Lima, Peru, has suffered threats for defending the Lomas de Primavera, a fragile ecosystem in danger of extinction due to land-grabing for Lima's urban expansion.-------Agustina Mas Pinedo, Secretary in General of the association "Asentamiento Humano Tierra Prometida" in Lima, Peru, has been accused for defending a 1,600 square metter area for the touristic and ecologic zone of San Benito.Contexto: LOMAs DE AMANCAES, asociación que fue creada con el fin de PROTEGER Y CONSERVAR este ecosistema frágil de Lima, Perú reintroduciendo y reforestando con especies nativas de lomas.Varias personas involucradas en esta asociación han estado amenazadas de muerte por defender las Lomas de Amancaes, un ecosistema frágil en peligro de extinción por el tráfico de terreno para la ampliación urbana de Lima, y denuncias por parte de los dirigentes invasores.Las personas que han sufrido amenazas por defender este ecosistema son Haydee Carmen Cerron Cardenas, Presidenta de la asociación, Trinidad Modesta Pérez Palacios, Secretaria de la asociación, Maria Cecilia Janampa Cerron, Tesorera,Juana Ccama Quispe, Secretaria, Ascencio Vasquez Gonzales, Presidente y director Ejecutivo, Cristobal Guevara Quispe, Secretario de la organización,Agustina Mas Pinedo,Secretaria General - Asentamiento Humano Tierra PrometidaMás información:Perú: las Lomas de Amancaes amenazadas por traficantes de terrenosConoce a las 4 mujeres que defienden las Lomas de Amancaes de los traficantes de tierras Lima: las Lomas de Amancaes son amenazadas por traficantes de terrenos
Moussa Ka, from the "Habitants et Travailleurs Baraka" association in Senegal and current HIC alternate representative for Africa has suffered thereats for his work defending and securing land for urban agriculture in Dakar, Senegal. Context:Moussa Ka fights to defend the security of tenure of land of urban agriculture farmers to produce food for cities. For thos work, he has suffered threats as well as claims and pressure related to allegations that he was violating the hygiene national code by praticing safe use wastewater irrigation, which is already recognized by the guidances of wastewater reuse in agriculture of WHO and FAO.
Organizaciones y movimientos populares del Ecuador Foto: Bienvenido Velasco/EPAEstado de excepción, criminalización y represión policial a las protestas populares contra el paquete neoliberal del gobierno del Ecuador en Octubre 2019ContextoDistintas organizaciones y movimientos populares, indígenas, de mujeres, trabajadores, campesinos, estudiantes, feministas y ecologistas del Ecuador se mobilizaron por aproximadamente 10 días en octubre ante el paquete neoliberal de medidas planteadas por el gobierno y por FMI. Estas medidas incluyen, entre otros, cortes en los subsídios de combustibles, lo que tiene un impacto directo en la economía del país, en el costo de los productos y afecta las familias más pobres de forma desproporsionada.Estos movimientos se organizaron a partir del anuncio del paquete por el gobierno, el 3 de octubre. Los doce días que se siguieron vieron una fuerte movilización por parte de la sociedad, y principalmente de los movimientos indígenas, en contra de las medidas, hasta que el 14 de octubre se logró un acuerdo y el paquete quedó sospendido. Las manifestaciones fueron fuertemente reprimidas por el gobierno, que instauró un verdadero estado de excepción para hacer frente a las protestas. Además de fuerte represión policial y militar, limitando los derechos de asociación y tránsito y violando directamente el derecho a la resistencia garantizado en la propia Constitución ecuatoriana en su artículo 98. La acción estatal resultó en ocho muertes, 1.300 heridos y casi 1200 prisiones, según ladefensoría del Pueblo de Ecuador. Más información:https://www.dpe.gob.ec/la-defensoria-del-pueblo-presenta-septimo-informe-con-resultados-de-la-vulneracion-de-derechos-durante-el-estado-de-excepcion/La Defensoría del Pueblo presenta séptimo informe con resultados de la vulneración de derechos durante el Estado de Excepción - Defensoría del Pueblo🔊 La Institución Nacional de Derechos Humanos, en el marco del paro nacional y la declaratoria del Estado de Excepción, y en cumplimiento de su...Defensoría del Pueblo
Cesare Ottolini, militant of the Unione Inquilini (Tenants Union) and global coordinator of the International AlIiance of InhabitantsAccused of “aggravated private violence” for defending a family from evictionContext: Cesare Ottolini, militant of the Unione Inquilini (Tenants Union) and global coordinator of the International AlIiance of Inhabitants, is on trial accused of “aggravated private violence” for successfully defending a family of migrants against eviction from their home in 2017. The family is one of many families defended over 40 years of struggle for the right to housing in his city and on all continents.For this offence, he risks a sentence of up to 4 years in prison for a completely peaceful act, the same one being carried out every day for years by many hosuing rights militants and human rights defenders in the country. The situation is a reflex of the current situation in the country and region, with a Northern League minister who boasts of the evictions executed every day in complete violation of the international human rights law ratified by Italy.An international solidarity campaign is underway, with the aim of defending this militant and to raise awareness for the case of hundreds of activists for the right to housing criminalized for their activities. This campaign has received many subscriptions and the support of the UN Special Rapporteur for the Right to Housing.More info:HIC-GSwebsite
Samir Flores - activista, campesino y miembro del Frente en Defensa de la Tierra y del Agua, en el estado de Morelos, MéxicoContexto:-Samir Flores, fue asesinado en la madrugada del 20 de Febrero en frente a su casa en lo que se califica cómo una respuesta directa a su liderazgo en las movilizaciones contra la construcción de una termoeléctrica en la ciudad de Huexca, en el estado de Morelos. El asesinato ocurrió tres días antes del inicio de una consulta pública sobre el proyecto y ocurrió el día siguiente a una asamblea informativa en que Flores confrontó verbalmente al delegado del gobierno federal para el estado de Morelos.Habitantes de los 26 pueblos que están distribuidos en los estados de Puebla, Tlaxcala y Morelos, y que serán directamente afectados por la infraestructura se han organizado en el Frente en Defensa de la Tierra y del Agua para frenar el proyecto de la termoeléctrica, en construcción desde 2012, y del gasoducto que transporta gas natural hasta la planta. Los habitantes de la región denuncian la falta de participación (no han sido consultados previamente al inicio de la construcción) y el impacto medioambiental del proyecto. Además de los riesgos y el impacto en términos de emisiones, la construcción de la planta pondrá más presión en los recursos hídricos locales, que ya son limitados además de fundamentales para las actividades agrícolas que se desarrollan en la región.Los movimientos aseguran que Flores ya había sufrido amenazas anteriores en diversas ocasiones desde el 2012 y denuncian el gobierno por haber mantenido la consulta tras el asesinato. El resultado de la consulta fue favorable a la puesta en marcha de la termoeléctrica (59.5% de los votos) contra 40.1 % de votos contrarios. La mayor parte de los votos favorables vienen de comunidades y ciudades que no serán afectadas directamente por el proyecto; mientras que en muchas de las zonas directamente afectadas la votación fue bloqueada por protestas de los habitantes.Más información:Asesinan a un activista mexicano en vísperas de la consulta sobre una termoeléctricaEl martes denunció un proyecto al que se oponía. Un día después ha sido asesinado. Samir Flores, un conocido activista de 35 años, se había...EL PAÍS