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HAND ANATOMISTS- group 1,Sp_Marta. MRo_Alexandrad, Ro_Dragosm,PL_Bartek G, PL_Weronika I, Pl_Martyna Z, PL_Marysia BBe_Anse, Be_Renée,Write the name of each finger in your language,,Write the name of the bones in your language,Bones,,,,,Anatomy in Leonardo's drawings,Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings were very accurate in medical terms, despite his limited technology and lack of contemporary medical knowledge.,In the winter of 1510-11 Leonardo was apparently working in the medical school of the University of Pavia, alongside the professor of anatomy Marcantonio della Torre. His investigations focussed on the mechanisms of the bones and muscles, and he developed novel illustrative techniques to convey the complexity of these mobile, layered, three-dimensional structures.,Leonardo's hand drawings were made using black chalk, pen and ink on a 28.8 x 20.2 cm paper sheet. They are currently in the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in the UK.,The muscles of the hand are the skeletal muscles responsible for the movement of the hand and fingers. The muscles of the hand can be subdivided into two groups: the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle groups. The extrinsic muscle groups are the long flexors and extensors. They are called extrinsic because the muscle belly is located on the forearm. The intrinsic group are the smaller muscles located within the hand itself. The muscles of the hand are innervated by the radial, median, and ulnar nerves from the brachial plexus.,Muscle of the human hand, Muscles are groups of cells in the body that have the ability to contract and relax. There are different types of muscle, and some are controlled automatically by the autonomic nervous system. Other muscles, like the skeletal muscle that moves the arm, is controlled by the somatic or voluntary nervous system.,HAND,PALM,We need bones to support the stucture of our hand and catch objects, manipulate, pinch... Bones are resistance structures and, together with the muscles, they give stability and shape to the hand and the body in general.Without them our hand would be soft and we couldn't manipulate the objects or even move our hand.Some activities that we couldn't do without hand bones are holdingthe hair comb, the fork, knife or spoon, drawing, writing.Our bones also hold lots of calcium, very important for the electricity of our heart, muscels and many other cells.So finally we need bones to do all daily activities.,Why do we need bones in our hands?,Soft tissues,The hand is an intricately complex structure whose muscles have evolved to permit an unequalled array of movements. More than 30 individual muscles in the hand and forearm work together to achieve these diverse movements. These muscles provide the hands with unsurpassed flexibility, extremely precise control, and gripping strength that are necessary for activities ranging from writing and typing to producing music and gripping a ball in sports.,Nerves,Muscles are fibrous tissues that help produce movement. Muscles work by contracting.,The anatomy of the human hand is very complex. Normal hand function requires all the various bones and soft tissues that structurally form the hand to maintain proper alignment and control.,Each hand and wrist has 27 little bones.If we think about all the different movements our wrists, hands, and fingers can make, and we can understand why they need so many bones: Many bones mean more movement. If they had just a few big bones, your hands wouldn’t move well at all and you wouldn’t accomplish much in a typical day.,General information about hand,Our hand bones are held in place, supported, connected or surrounded by various soft tissues.These include: articular cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons.Muscles and ligaments function to control the movement of the hand.,Tendons,THE PHALANGES,THE CARPAL BONES,THE METACARPALSBONES,Distrubution of the ulnar, median and radial nerves,THE FINGERS,The three main nerves of the hand and wrist are the ulnar nerve, radial nerve and median nerve. All three nerves originate at the shoulder and travel down the arm to the hand. Each of these nerves has sensory and motor components.,Nerves of the hand carry electrical signals from the brain to the muscles in the forearm and hand, enabling movement. They also carry the senses of touch, pain and temperature back from the hands to the brain.,,Arteries,The human hand has numerous arteries, such as the Deep Palmar Arch, the Superficial Palmar Arch, the Common Digital Arteries, Digital Arteries to the Thumb, Proper Digital Arteries to the Fingers and the Radial Artery of the Index Finger, as shown in the image. They are extremely important because they provide oxygenated blood to the fingers, which supports and maintains the hand's tissues.,The Deep Palmar Arch: As the radial artery continues in the hand, it wraps around the thumb and comes across the deep palm. Itresembles the shape of an arch and even though it's small, it is very important in the hand's anatomy. It sends off small branches to supply blood to the thumb & index finger. It also connects to the Superficial Palmar Arch in most people.The Superficial Palmar Arch: As the ulnar artery continues in the hand, it travels across the palm. This vesselcommunicates with the Deep Palmar Arch and also gives off important branches which suplly blood to the fingers.Common Digital Arteries are small vessels that come from the palmar arches and supply blood to the fingers. They are called common because most of them travel in the palm toward the fingers and then split to provide blood to two different fingers.,Digital Ateries to the Thumb provide blood to the thumb. The largest one is a branch from the Deep Palmar Arch and it's called the Princeps Pollicis artery.Proper Digital Arteries to the Fingers: As the common digital arteries travel from the palm towards the fingers, the split near the finger web spaces to become the proper digital arteries. The split feeds two different fingers. Each finger has two proper digital arteries that run on either side along its lenght. If one of those vessels is injured, the several connections between the two usually mentains the blood suplly to the entire finger.Radial Artery of the Index Finger: Near the digital artery to the thumb, the radiar artery of the index finger branches off of the deep palmar arch. It brings blood supply to the index finger along its thumb side. The other side (ulnar side) of the index finger is supplied by a branch of a common digital artery.,Types of muscle,Why do we need muscles for?,Skeletal muscles,Skeletal muscles move the external parts of the body and the limbs. Skeletal muscles cover the bones and give our bodies their shape. For every skeletal muscle in the human body there is an identical one on the other side. There are about 320 pairs of identical bilateral muscles. When one muscle contracts, the other expands, and this allows movement.,Humans and other vertebrates have skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.,Smooth muscles,Cardiac muscles are responsible for heartbeat. They only exist only in the heart. The cardiac muscles work without stopping, day and night. They work automatically, but they are similar in structure to the skeletal muscles. They make the heart contract so that the heart can squeeze our blood, and release so that the heart can fill up with blood again.,Cardiac muscles,Smooth muscles are responsible for movements in the stomach, intestines, heart, arteries, and hollow organs. The smooth muscles in the bowel are also called visceral muscles. These muscles are activated automatically. We are not aware that we are using them. Unlike skeletal muscles, they do not depend on conscious thought.Smooth muscles are also present within the walls of the bladder, the bronchi, and the arrector pili in the skin, which makes the hair stand up.,Ligaments are tough rope-like tissue that connect bones to other bones, holding them in place and providing stability to the joints. Each finger joint has two collateral ligaments on either side, which prevents the abnormal sideways bending of the joints. The volar plate is the strongest ligament in the hand.