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HAND ANATOMISTS

Group 2Stefania (RO), Ariana (RO), Julka (PL), Klaudia (PL), Jędrek (PL) Lore (BE), Yorine (BE)

Index

2. Hand anatomy - bones.

Metacarpals bones

Carpals bones

3. Muscles

4. Nerves, arteries & veins

Phalanges

1. Hand anatomy - general information.

5. Hand anatomy in Leonardo's drawing

Dictionary

Metacarpal bones

Carpal bones

01 HAND ANATOMY

General information

The human hand is made up of the wrist, palm, and fingers and consists of 27 bones, 27 joints, 34 muscles, over 100 ligaments and tendons, and many blood vessels and nerves.The anatomy of human hand is quite unique and includes the configuration of bones, joints, veins and muscles. The physiological interconnection and structure of these parts are responsible for the structure of the human hand. The functional areaof hand includes the five fingers, palm and the wrist.

(EN) bone(DUTCH) bot(IT)oss(PL) kość(RO) os(SP/CAT)hueso/hueso

(EN) joint in hands(DUTCH) Gewrichten in handen(IT)giunture in mano(PL) stawy w dłoni(RO) Articulatii în mâini(SP/CAT)

(EN) muscle(DUTCH)spier(IT)(PL) mięsień(RO)(SP/CAT)

(EN) ligaments and tendons(DUTCH) ligamenten en pezen(IT)legamenti e tendini(PL)więzadła i ścięgna(RO)ligamentele și tendoanele(SP/CAT)

Dictionary

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Bone

Joint

Palm

Hand

ENGLISH: Index fingerDUTCH:WijsvingerITALIAN:IndiceCATALAN/SPANISH:Dit índex/Dedo índiceROMANIAN:Degetul aratatorPOLISH: Palec wskazujący

ENGLISH: Middle fingerDUTCH: MiddelvingerITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH:ROMANIAN: Degetul mijlociuPOLISH: Palec środkowy

ENGLISH: Thumb DUTCH:DuimITALIAN:PolliceCATALAN/SPANI:Polze/PulgarROMANIAN:Deget marePOLISH: Kciuk

ENGLISH: Ring fingerDUTCH: RingvingerITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH: /dedo anularROMANIAN: Inel degetPOLISH: Palec serdeczny

ENGLISH: PinkyDUTCH: PinkITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH:ROMANIAN: Degetul micPOLISH: Palec mały

ENGLISH: Intermediate phalangesDUTCH: Tussenliggende kootjesITALIAN:Falangi intermedieCATALAN/SPANISH:Falanges intermèdies/Falanges intermediasROMANIAN:POLISH: Paliczki środkowe

ENGLISH: Proximal phalangesDUTCH: proximale vingerkootjesITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH: /Falanges proximalesROMANIAN:POLISH: Paliczki bliższe

ENGLISH: MetacarpalsDUTCH: middenhandsbeentjeITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH:ROMANIAN:POLISH: Kości śródręcza

ENGLISH: Carpal bonesDUTCH: HandwortelbeentjesITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH:ROMANIAN: Carpale oasePOLISH: Kości nadgarstka

ENGLISH: Distal phalangesDUTCH:Distale vingerkootjesITALIAN:Falangi distaliCATALAN/SPANISH:Falanges distals/Falanges distalesROMANIAN:Falangele distalPOLISH: Paliczki dalsze

ENGLISH: BoneDUTCH: BotITALIAN: OssoCATALAN/SPANISH: Os/huesoROMANIAN: OsPOLISH: Kość

ENGLISH: JointDUTCH: gewrichtITALIAN:CATALAN/SPANISH:ROMANIAN:POLISH: Staw

ENGLISH: PalmDUTCH: palmITALIAN: ManoCATALAN/SPANISH: Mà/manoROMANIAN: MânăPOLISH: Dłoń

02 Hand anatomy - bones

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The fingers and thumb contain 14 bones, each of which is called a phalanx bone (plural = phalanges), named after the ancient Greek phalanx (a rectangular block of soldiers).The metacarpal bones connect the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist. Each human handhasfive metacarpals and eight carpal bones.Fingers contain some of the densest areas of nerveendings in the body, and are the richest sourceof tactile feedback. They also have the greatestpositioning capability of the body.Each hand is dominantly controlled bythe opposing brain hemisphere.

Head

Body

Base

• Phalanges

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There are fourteen phalanges in each hand. Three are located in each long finger, and two are located in the thumb. The knobby ends of the phalanges help form knuckle joints.

The proximal phalangesare the bones that are found at the bottom of the finger. They are named proximal because they are the closest phalanges to the metacarpals.

Theintermediate phalangesare bones located in the fingers. Each intermediate phalanx connects to a proximal and distal phalanx. This middle phalanx has two joints, and allows the finger to bend in two places. The intermediate phalanges are unique to fingers. The thumb does not possess such a bone, as it only consists of a proximal and distal phalanx

The distalphalangesare one of three types of finger bones. The distal phalanges are the fingertips. This is why the term terminal phalanges may be interchangeable with distal phalanges.

The thumbonly has a proximal and distal phalanx.

If you look at your four fingers and thumb on your hand, you can see that the four fingers have two joints while the thumb only has one. This is because the fingers have three phalanges each:The proximal phalanx, the one that connects to the palm of your handThe middle phalanxThe distal phalanx, the one on top of which your nail sits.

• Metacarpals bones

The metacarpals are long bones within the hand that are connected to the carpals, or wrist bones, and to the phalanges, or finger bones. The metacarpals together are referred to as the 'metacarpus.' The tops of the metacarpals form the knuckles where they join to the wrist.

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Themetacarpalsare long boneswithin the hand that are connected to the carpals, or wrist bones, and to the phalanges, or finger bones. The metacarpals together are referred to as the 'metacarpus.' The tops of the metacarpals form the knuckles where they join to the wrist. On the palm side, they are covered with connective tissue. You can feel and see the metacarpals on the back of your hand, through your skin.The five metacarpals are called thumb metacarpal, index metacarpal, middle metacarpal, ring metacarpal, and small metacarpal.

• Carpals bones

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The wrist and baseof the hand are formed by a series of eight small carpal bones

Trapezium - “table” The trapezium is a saddle-shaped bone in the second row of wrist bones, and it is the main place where the thumb metacarpal connects to the wrist. This bone has an odd shape that allows the thumb to move in multiple directions, yet it stabilizes thumb as well.

Trapezoid - “resembles a table”This is a roughly trapezoidal-shaped bone in the second row of wrist bones and primarily holds the index finger metacarpal bone in place. This bone is uncommonly injured.

Capitate - “head-shaped”The capitate is a large bone in the center of the second row of wrist bones. It forms joints with multiple bones in the wrist and hand. It sits primarily under the middle finger metacarpal bone. This bone makes an important contribution to wrist motion.

Hamate - “hooked bone”The hamate is a large, unusually shaped, bone that has an almost triangular shape when seen from the top and is located in the second row of wrist bones. It holds up the ring and little finger metacarpal bones.

Pisiform “pea-shaped”The pisiform is a small sesamoid bone (a bone within a tendon) that sits in the wrist and is in the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon.

Triquetrum - “three-cornered”The triquetrum is a bone on the small finger side of the wrist in the first row of wrist bones. This bone adds stability to the wrist, gives the wrist a larger surface to bear weight transmitted from the hand, and makes a joint with other carpal bones including the pisiform.

Lunate “moon-shaped” The lunate is a bone in the middle of the wrist in the first row of wrist bones. Like most of the wrist bones, it is almost entirely covered in cartilage.

Scaphoid- “boat-shaped” The scaphoid is a bone in the wrist. It is part of the first row of wrist bones, but it helps to link the two rows of wrist bones together. Its name derives from the Greek word for boat because it’s thought that the scaphoid resembles a boat.

The8 carpal bones are arranged into two rowsof four–a proximaland a distalrow.The proximal row of carpal bones, from the lateral (thumb side) to the medial side is made up of the following bones:Scaphoid,Lunate,Triquetrum,PisiformIn the distal row of carpal bones, we have:Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate.The bones are the joining bridge between the ulna and radius and the metacarpals.The eight bones are connected with each other and with the other bones with the help of ligaments.

03 Muscles

The muscles of the hand are the skeletal muscles responsible for the movement of the hand and fingers. The muscles of the hand can be subdivided into two groups: the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle groups. The extrinsic muscle groups are the long flexors and extensors. They are called extrinsic because the muscle belly is located on the forearm. The intrinsic group are the smaller muscles located within the hand itself. Control of muscle action is by the nervous system. Nerves are in touch with muscles by motor end plates which convey a stimulus to contract. The muscles of the hand are innervated by the radial, median, and ulnar nerves from the brachial plexus. Muscles are like the building blocks on the bones.These not only make the hand robust in gripping but also arevery helpful in its movement.

04 Nerves

There are 4 nerves coming into the general area of the hand: - posterior antebrachial cutaneous -radial -ulnar -median and these are responsible for supplying the skin of the hand.

04 Arteries & veins

The hand is supplied with blood through two main arteries: one on the same side as the thumb, and one on the same side as the little finger. These two arteries each curve around in an arch shape where the palm is, so that the hand is supplied with oxygen-rich blood through a double loop. These loops have branches leading off into the individual fingers. Each artery is accompanied by veins and nerves: In total, each finger is supplied by four bundles of nerves and blood vessels.

Blood vessels travel beside the nerves to supply blood to the hand. The main arteries are the ulnar and radial arteries, which supply blood to the front of the hand, fingers, and thumb.

The radial artery is the largest artery of the hand, traveling across the front of the wrist, near the thumb. Pulse is measured at the radial artery.Other blood vessels travel across the back of the wrist to supply blood to the back of the hand, fingers, and thumb.

Veins

The dorsal venous network of the hand is a network of veins in the superficial fascia on the dorsum of hand formed by the dorsal metacarpal veins. It is found on the back of the hand and gives rise to veins such as the cephalic vein and the basilic vein.

05 Hand anatomy in Leonardo's drawings

The bones, muscles and tendons of the hand- five studies of a right hand, showing bones and muscles; six smaller drawings of digits; notes on the drawings.

Leonardo demonstrates the structure of the hand, building it up in the manner of an engineer. He begins at lower left with the bones, then adds the deep muscles of the palm and wrist at lower right, the first layer of flexor tendons at upper left, and the second layer of tendons at upper right.

More info

Leonardo was intrigued that the two sets of tendons bend the fingers in different ways, either with the finger held straight or curling the finger, as shown at bottom right; in each finger one tendon passes through a gap in the other, illustrated at upper centre, as he had observed in the bear’s foot more than twenty years earlier.

In the winter of 1510-11 Leonardo was apparently working in the medical school of the University of Pavia, alongside the professor of anatomy Marcantonio della Torre. His investigations focussed on the mechanisms of the bones and muscles, and he developed novel illustrative techniques to convey the complexity of these mobile, layered, three-dimensional structures.

The studies of the skeleton of a right hand; anatomical studies of fingers; studies of the skeleton of a right hand;a clenched fist; noteson the drawings.

Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the hand was not only a scientific discovery but also thanks to that knowledge Leonardo could accurately exemplifies hands on his paintings.

The studies of the skeleton of a right hand; anatomical studies of fingers; studies of the skeleton of a right hand;a clenched fist; noteson the drawings.

Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the hand was not only a scientific discovery but also thanks to that knowledge Leonardo could accurately exemplifies hands on his paintings.

Leonardo's amazing study of hands

This sheet is referred to as the Portrait of Ginevra de 'Benci, of which it would be a preparatory study for the hands, which as is known were removed with a reduction of the canvas in an unknown period.The sheet also shows a small grotesque profile, testimony of how Leonardo used and reused the sheets tofix the multiple cues thatcame to his mind.

Leonardo da Vinci intense attention, even the fascination with anatomical correctness, the effects of light and shadow gave the remarkable results.

like on his other paintings

Leonardo da Vinci intense attention, even the fascination with anatomical correctness, the effects of light and shadow gave the remarkable results.

like on his other paintings