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HEART ANATOMISTS

Group 2 Alice (RO), Alessia (RO),Teona (RO), Ruxandra (RO),Horia (RO), Tommaso (IT),Natalia (PL), Zosia (PL),Michalina (PL)

INDEX

2. Functions of the Human Heart

3. Structure of the Human Heart

Types of Circulation

Structure of the Heart Wall

Pericardium

Blood Vessels

Valves

4. Facts about Human Heart

1. The Location, Size, and Shape of the Heart

5. Human Heart in Leonardo's drawings

The Heart Chambers and Their Function

Pericardium

1. The Location, Size, and Shape of the Heart

The weight of the heart is 250-300 grams and the volum is like the right fist. The heart has a convex part and a flat part. The top of the heart, pointing downwards and to the left,is located in the left intercostal space 5. The base of the heart is directed to the back and to the right.

The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. It is located in the thoracic cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum. The weight of the heart is 250-300 grams and the volume is like the right fist.

Because the heart points to the left, about 2/3 of the heart’s mass is found on the left side of the body and the other 1/3 is on the right. The heart has a convex part and a flat part. The top of the heart, painting downwards and to the left, is located in the left intercostal space The base of the heart is directed to the back and to the right.

1. Heart position

Besides lubrication, the pericardium serves to hold the heart in position and maintain a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full. The pericardium has 2 layers—a visceral layer that covers the outside of the heart and a parietal layer that forms a sac around the outside of the pericardial cavity.The thickness of the heart wall varies in different parts of the heart. The atria of the heart have a very thin myocardium because they do not need to pump blood very far—only to the nearby ventricles. The ventricles, on the other hand, have a very thick myocardium to pump blood to the lungs or throughout the entire body.

Aorta

EN: AortaSP: Las AortaIT: La AortaNL: AortaRO: AortăPL: Aorta

Superior Vena Cava

EN: Superior Vena CavaSP: Vena Cava SuperiorIT: Vena Cava SuperioreNL: Superior Vena CavaRO: Superior Vena CavaPL: Żyła Główna Górna

RightAtrium

EN: Right AtriumSP: Aurícula DerechaIT: Atrio DestroNL:Rechts AtriumRO: Atriul DreptPL: Prawy Przedsionek

RightVentricle

EN: Right VentricleSP:Ventrículo DerechoIT:Right VentricleNL:Rechter HartkamerRO:Ventricul DreptPL: Prawa Komora

Pulmonary Artery

EN: Pulmonary ArterySP: Arteria PulmonarIT: Arteria PolmonareNL: LongslagaderRO: Artera PulmonaraPL: Tętnica Płucna

InferiorVenaCava

EN: Inferior Vena CavaSP: Vena Cava InferiorIT: Vena Cava InferioreNL: Inferieure Vena CavaRO: Vena Cava InferioaraPL: Żyła Główna Dolna

PulmonaryVein

EN: Pulmonary VeinSP: Vena PulmonarIT: Vena PolmonareNL: LongaderRO: Venă PulmonarăPL: Żyła Płucna

Left Atrium

EN: Left AtriumSP: Atrio IzquierdoIT: Atrio SinistroNL: Atrium LinksRO: Atriul StangPL: Lewy Przedsionek

Vocabulary

EN: Human HeartSP: Corazón HumanoIT: Cuore UmanoNL: Menselijk HartRO: Inima de OmPL: Serce CzłowiekaThe human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.The human heart has four chambers: two upper chambers (the atria) and two lower ones (the ventricles), according to the National Institutes of Health. The right atrium and right ventricle together make up the "right heart," and the left atrium and left ventricle make up the "left heart." A wall of muscle called the septum separates the two sides of the heart.

LeftVentricle

EN: Left VentricleSP:Ventrículo IzquierdoIT: Ventricolo SinistroNL: Linker HartkamerRO: Ventriculul StângPL: Lewa Komora

2. Functions of the Human Heart

The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.

2. Functions of the Human Heart

The heart’s blood-pumping cycle, called cardiac cycle, ensures that blood is distributed throughout the body. The oxygen distribution process begins when oxygen-free blood enters into the heart through the right atrium, goes into the right ventricle, enters the lungs for oxygen refill and release of carbon dioxide, and transfers into the left chambers, ready for redistribution. About 5.6 liters of blood circulate the body and three cardiac cycles are completed per minute.

Types of Circulation

There isn't only one blood circulatory system in the human body, but two, which are connected: the systemic circulation provides organs, tissues and cells with blood so that they get oxygen and other vital substances. The pulmonary circulation is where the fresh oxygen we breathe in enters the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide is released from the blood.

Blood Circulation

Blood circulation starts when the heart relaxes between two heartbeats.

The blood flows from both atria (the upper two chambers of the heart) into the ventricles (the lower two chambers), which then expand. The following phase is called the ejection period, which is when both ventricles pump the blood into the large arteries.

Blood Circulation- The Systemic Circulation

In the Systemic Circulation, the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood into the main artery (aorta). The blood travels from the main artery to larger and smaller arteries and into the capillary network. There the blood drops off oxygen, nutrients and other important substances and picks up carbon dioxide and waste products. The blood, which is now low in oxygen, is collected in veins and travels to the right atrium and into the right ventricle.

Blood Circulation- The Pulmonary Circulation

The right ventricle pumps low-oxygen blood into the pulmonary artery, which branches off into smaller and smaller arteries and capillaries. The capillaries form a fine network around the pulmonary vesicles (grape-like air sacs at the end of the airways). This is where carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the air inside the pulmonary vesicles, and fresh oxygen enters the bloodstream. When we breathe out, carbon dioxide leaves our body. Oxygen-rich blood travels through the pulmonary veins and the left atrium into the left ventricle. The next heartbeat starts a new cycle of systemic circulation.

3. Structure of the Human Heart

The heart is a two-sided pump made up of four chambers: the upper two chambers called atria and the lower two called the ventricles. On the right side of the heart, the right atrium and right ventricle work to pump oxygen-poor blood returning from the body back to the lungs to be reoxygenated. On the left side of the heart, the left atrium and left ventricle combine to pump oxygenated blood back through the body. Muscular walls, called septa or septum, divide the heart into two sides and keep the two kinds of blood from mixing.

SuperiorVenaCava

Right

Atrium

RightVentricle

Pulmonary

EN: Pulmonary ArterySP: Arteria PulmonarIT: Arteria PolmonareNL: LongslagaderRO: Artera PulmonaraPL: Tętnica Płucna

Artery

InferiorVenaCava

PulmonaryVein

Left

EN: Left AtriumSP: Atrio IzquierdoIT: Atrio SinistroNL: Atrium LinksRO: Atriul StangPL: Lewy Przedsionek

Atrium

HumanHeart

EN: Human HeartSP: Corazón HumanoIT: Cuore UmanoNL: Menselijk HartRO: Inima de OmPL: Serce CzłowiekaThe human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.The human heart has four chambers: two upper chambers (the atria) and two lower ones (the ventricles), according to the National Institutes of Health. The right atrium and right ventricle together make up the "right heart," and the left atrium and left ventricle make up the "left heart." A wall of muscle called the septum separates the two sides of the heart.

LeftVentricle

Aorta

Tricuspid Valve

Mitral ValveThe blood is then pumped into the left ventricle chamber of the heart through the mitral valve.

The right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve, into the pulmonary circulation.The right ventricle is equal in size to that of the left ventricle and contains roughly 85 millilitres in the adult. Its upper front surface is circled and convex, and forms much of the sternocostal surface of the heart. Its under surface is flattened, forming part of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart that rests upon the diaphragm.The right ventricle is triangular in shape and extends from the tricuspid valve in the right atrium to near the apex of the heart. Its wall is thickest at the apex and thins towards its base at the atrium.

Aortic ValveIt separates the left ventricle (which pumps blood to the body) from the aorta. It opens and closes automatically, based on pressure changes in your heart.

The superior vena cavais the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart. It is a large-diameter (24 mm), yet short, vein that receives venous return from the upper half of the body, above the diaphragm.

Pulmonary Valve

The pulmonary veinsare the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The largest pulmonary veins are the four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung that drain into the left atrium of the heart.The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation.

Aortais the main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries.Blood Oxygenating

The right atrium receives and holds deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins and the coronary sinus, which it then sends down to the right ventricle (through the tricuspid valve).

The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries the deoxygenated bloodfrom the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart. Its walls are rigid and it has valves so the blood does not flow down via gravity. It is formed by the joining of the right and the left common iliac veins, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein.The left atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart, located on the left posterior side. Its primary roles are to act as a holding chamber for blood returning from the lungs and to act as a pump to transport blood to other areas of the heart.The walls of the left atrium are slightly thicker than the walls of the right atrium.

From Left Ventricle the blood is ready to be pumped into the body to deliver oxygen-rich blood to all bodily tissues.From there, blood is pumped out through the aortic valve into the aortic arch and onward to the rest of the body. The left ventricle is the thickest of the heart’s chambers and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to tissues all over the body. By contrast, the right ventricle solely pumps blood to the lungs.

Pericardium

A double-walled sac called the pericardium encases the heart, which serves to protect the heart and anchor it inside the chest. Between the outer layer, the parietal pericardium, and the inner layer, the serous pericardium, runs pericardial fluid, which lubricates the heart during contractions and movements of the lungs and diaphragm

The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection and provides the lubrication for the heart. It receives its name from Ancient Greek peri (περί; "around") and cardion (κάρδιον; "heart")

Pericardium

The heart's outer wall consists of three layers. The outermost wall layer, or epicardium, is the inner wall of the pericardium. The middle layer, or myocardium, contains the muscle that contracts. The inner layer, or endocardium, is the lining that contacts the blood

Structure of the Heart Wall

The heart wall is made of 3 layers:epicardium,myocardiumendocardium

• Structure of the Heart Wall

Covering the outer surface of the heart is the epicardium. It is also referred to as the visceral pericardium, which is the inner layer of the pericardium.

• Structure of the Heart Wall

The thick middle layer of the heart wall is called the myocardium. It consists of numerous layers of cardiac muscles fibers that wrap around the heart wall. Contraction of the myocardium pumps blood out of the heart into the aorta and pulmonary trunk arteries.

• Structure of the Heart Wall

Covering the inner surface of the heart wall is the endocardium descriptionendocardium. This layer also covers the heart valves and tendons and is continuous with the endothelium that lines the major blood vessels that attach to the heart.

• Chambers of the Heart

The right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the right ventricle.The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood to the body.

The heart has four chambers:two atria and two ventricles.

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4

3

2

The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to the veins that carry blood to the heart.

The ventricles are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to the arteries that carry blood away from the heart.

The right side of the heart maintains pulmonary circulation to the nearby lungs while the left side of the heart pumps blood all the way to the extremities of the body in the systemic circulatory loop.

The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller and have less myocardium in their heart wall when compared to the left side of the heart. This difference in size between the sides of the heart is related to their functions and the size of the 2 circulatory loops.

Right ventricle:Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to themain pulmonary artery. Blood passes from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Blood is then forced into the main pulmonary artery as the ventricles contract and the pulmonary valve opens. The pulmonary artery extends from the right ventricle and branches into the left and right pulmonary arteries. These arteries extend to thelungs. Here, oxygen-poor blood picks up oxygen and is returned to the heart via thepulmonary veins.

Left ventricle:Receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to theaorta. Blood returning to the heart from the lungs enters the left atrium and passes through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. Blood in the left ventricle is then pumped to the aorta as the ventricles contract and the aortic valve opens. The aorta carries and distributes oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.

The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood returning from other parts of the body.

The left atrium and right atrium are the two upper chambers of the heart. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

• Blood Vessels

Blood vessels split into 2 categories:

1. Arteries - vessels that leave the heart from the ventricles -the wall of the arteries is more elastic than the veins' wall -they ramify into smaller and smaller vessels: arterioles, metaarterioles and arterial capillaries -they transport blood with CO2 to the lungs -they present numerous branches which irrigate the whole body -The Aorta: a) leaves the heart from theleft ventricle b) it is the biggest artery in the body c) transports oxygenated blood to the tissues

• Blood Vessels

Blood vessels split into 2 categories:

2.Veins: -vessels which transport blood from the tissues to the heart, in the atriums - the wallof the veins is less elastic than the atriums’ walls -the veins situated under the heart present venous valvules which favor the return of blood to the heart -the superior and inferior cava veins open in the right atricle nad transport blood with CO2 to the organs The pulmonary veins,4 in number, open in the left atricle and transport oxygenated blood to the lungs

• Blood Vessels

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Venule

Cappilary web

Thick muscle layer

Thin muscle layer

Artery lining

Elastic layer

Cappilary

Vain

Arteriole

Artery

Valve

• Valves

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• Valves

Heart valves are flap-like structures that allow blood to flow in one direction preventing backward flow of the blood. Four valves regulate the flow of blood in and out of the heart and from chamber to chamber.Two valves control blood flow within the heart’s chambers, and two valves control blood flow out of the heart.Normal valves have 3 flaps (leaflets), except the mitral valve. It only has 2 flaps.

• Valves

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• Valves

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Pulmonary Valve:It is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

Tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Mitral Valve:It is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

Aortic Valve: It is located between the left ventricle and the aorta

4. Facts about Human Heart

You likely don't spend a lot of time thinking about your heartbeat, but this muscle is one of the most fascinating parts of the human body.The human heart beats an average of 100,000 time a day and 35 million times a year. During your lifetime your heart will beat around 2.5 billion times.Unlike other muscles, heart contractions are not regulated by the brain. Electrical impulses generated by heart nodes cause your heart to beat. As long as it has enough energy and oxygen, your heart will continue to beat even outside of your body. The human heart may continue to beat for up to a minute after removal from the body. However, the heart of an individual addicted to a drug, such as cocaine, can beat for a much longer period of time outside of the body. Cocaine causes the heart to work harder as it reduces blood flow to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This drug increases heart rate, heart size, and can cause heart muscle cells to beat erratically.

4. Facts about Human Heart

When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go to the brain and back, and only sixteen seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.If you were to stretch out your blood vesselsystem, it would extend over 96560kilometers.The average heart beats 72 times a minute!This adds up to around 100,000 times aday, and 3,600,000 a year.The volume of blood pumped by the heartcanvary over a wide range, from five to30 litersper minute.

4. Facts about Human Heart

If you need another reason to make sure you're getting the recommended seven-to-nine hours of shut eye, one study revealed lack of sleep can increase your chance of having an irregular heartbeat by up to 29 percent.The oxygenated blood from heart rushes through aorta (the largest artery in human body) at a speed of 1.6 kilometers in an hour. However, bythe time the blood eventually reaches the capillaries, it slows down to a speed of1 meteran hour.

The heart’s weight is less than 0.5 percent of the total body weight of a person.The volume of blood pumped by the heart can vary over a wide range, from five to 30 liters per minute.

4. Facts about Human Heart

Your heart rate drops while you sleep. At night, it’s common for heart rates to drop below 60 bpm (beats per minute). Some people even have rates in the 40s while sleeping. Why? “It’s because your metabolism slows and the parasympathetic nervous system, which slows your heart and relaxes you, is more active,”Contrary to popular belief, sneezing does not stop your heart or make it “skip a beat.” It can, however, briefly change your heart’s rhythm. The only time your heart stops is during cardiac arrest.During your lifetime, your heart pumps more blood through your body than you can imagine. The amount of blood your hearts pumps over the course of your life is equal to kitchen faucet turned on full blast for 45 years.

5. Human Heart in Leonardo's drawings

Combined with Leonardo's talents, profound artistic ability, technical skills, creativity and immense pleasure in exploring new areas, this led to several remarkable discoveries in the history of medicine. Among approximately 800 anatomical illustrations made by da Vinci, a greatnumber of drawings are devoted to the cardiovascular system. Da Vinci claimed that he had dissected more than 10 human bodiesin order to understand the blood vessels.

5. Human Heart in Leonardo's drawings

Da Vinci considered the heart“an admirable instrument invented bythe Supreme Being”.He began to investigate the heart and circulation during the 1490s and his studies culminated in the drawings and descriptions he produced in Milan.

5. Human Heart in Leonardo's drawings

Leonardo used warm wax to make a cast of the heart valves' form in their natural state.

In those drawings, he used his knowledge of fluids, weights, levers and engineering to try to understand how the heart functions. He also looked closely at the actions of the heart valves and the flow of blood through them. Many of Leonardo's conclusions, such as the description of how the arterial valves close and open - letting blood flow around the heart - holds true today, but is not widely known.

5. Human Heart in Leonardo's drawings

Many of Leonardo's drawings were based on studies of hearts from ox and pigs. It was only later in life that he had access to human organs, and these dissections had to be carried out quickly in winter before the body began to degrade. Contemporary dissections of the heart show he was correct on many aspects of its functioning.

For example, he showed that the heart is a muscle and that it does not warm the blood.

• Structure of the Heart Wall in da Vinci research

Leonardo da Vinci has discovered through a special dissection technique that the heart has a helical structure, consisting of a single muscle band, called the ventricular myocardial band.After 500 years, Dr. Torrent Guasp, relying on Leonardo da Vinci's notes, confirmed that the helical form of the heart makes spiral blood circulation possible in the form of a vortex. Helical vortexes in the heart provide superior energy, demonstrating that nature is governed by the laws of simplicity and efficacy. Leonardo da Vinci demonstrated that the atria (the heart filling chambers) contracted together, while the ventricles relaxed and vice versa.He noticed the rotation movement of the heart for pumping. The heart is emptied with a twisting motion, and then twists in the opposite direction to allow it to be refilled with blood.