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Mobile Learning: Catalyst for Optimal Classroom Environment when Learning Spanish in Thailand

Dr. Eva Álvarez RamosUniversidad de Valladolidevamaria.alvarez.ramos@uva.es

Dr. Leyre Alejaldre BielColumbia Universityla2771@columbia.edu

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Mobile Learning: A Catalyst for Optimal Classroom Environment when Learning Spanish in Thailand

Dr. Eva Álvarez RamosUniversidad de Valladolidevamaria.alvarez.ramos@uva.es

Dr. Leyre Alejaldre BielColumbia Universityla2771@columbia.edu

Outline

Description of the problem

Research Methodology

Research context /Thai Student Profile

Preliminary results

Research goal

Theoretical Framework

Bibliography and Discussion

Data collection tools

Outline

Description of the problem

Research Methodology

Research context /Thai Student Profile

Preliminary results

Research goal

Theoretical Framework

Bibliography and Discussion

Data collection tools

Description of the problem

Low spontaneous participation of Thai students in the Spanish as a Foreign Language Classroom

This longitudinal research (2015-2017) developed in a Thai university analyzes the impact of mobile learning in the Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) classroom routines.

The work focuses on assessing whether or not the use of mobile devices improves motivation and participation.

What I refer to when I talk aboutSPONTANEOUS PARTICIPATION?

Spontaneous participation implies that the learner takes an active role in the classroom without the need of "bribes" (such as offering extra points).The learner expresses his/her points of view, and share his/her knowledge without the fear of being jugdged by teachers or classmates or fear to make mistakes.

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Low spontaneous participation of Thai students in the SFL class

Does Thai culture impact on students´ behavior in Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) class?

What role do emotions play in the Spanish as a foreign language classroom in Thailand?

Can activities mediated by mobile devices regulate negative emotions, such as anxiety, and become the catalyst for a better classroom environment?

Research questions

METHODOLOGY

Literature review

In-class observation

PSEUDO-EXPERIMENTALACTION-RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE/QUALITATIVE

2 academic years

Activities with Kahootwith EG

Activities with Mentimeterwith EG

Online surveyspersonal interview

n=238CG:64. EG:174

Thai UniversityBegginers

Theoretical Framework

Emotional dimension does not oppose cognitive dimension. When used together, the learning process is built on a more solid scaffolding.(Arnold y Brown, 2006)

Impact of emotions in the learning processGardner y Lambert (1972)Krashen (1982)Dufeu (1994)Kagan (1994)Goleman (1996)Arnold y Brown (2006)Ortega (2007)Oliveros-Cuhat (2010)Horwitz (2012)Rubio Alcalá (2015)Méndez Santos (2016)

Theoretical framework

To assure that learners feel confortable in the classroom, we must create an optimal emotional teaching environment,that stimulates selfconfidenceand invite them to experiment and participate using the target language without fear of making mistakes and feeling embarrased.(Dufeu 1994, 89-90)

Neurodidactis and SFLDuñabeitia, J.A. (2017)Ivaz, L., Griffin, K.L., & Duñabeitia, J.A. (2019)Mora, F. (2013)Mendez Santos, M. (2016)

Influence of ICT in Emotions in SFL contextAlejaldre, (2016)Rodriguez (2015)

Theoretical framework

Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan, & Yang. (2010)Liu, T.‐C., Wang, H.‐Y., Liang, J.‐K., Chan, T.‐W., Ko, H.‐W. & Yang, J.‐C. (2003)Sung, Change, & Liu, (2016)Wang, M. , Shen, R. , Novak, D. and Pan, X. (2009)

A 2016 meta-analysis of 110 experimental and quasi-experimental studies published between 1993 and 2013 that investigated the effects of integrating mobile devices on student learning indicated that the overall effect of using mobile devices appears to be better for learning than the use of desktop computers or not using devices at all (Sung, Change, & Liu, 2016).

Influence of Mobile learning in T/L

Theoretical framework

Heflin, H., Shewmaker, J., & Nguyen, J. (2017)Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan, & Yang. (2010)Liu, T.‐C., Wang, H.‐Y., Liang, J.‐K., Chan, T.‐W., Ko, H.‐W. & Yang, J.‐C. (2003)Sung, Change, & Liu, (2016)Wang, M. , Shen, R. , Novak, D. and Pan, X. (2009)

Mobile learning is beneficial in increasing student independence, engagement, and communication (Dunn, Richardson, Oprescu, & McDonald, 2013; Hamm et al., 2013; Junco, Heiberger, & Loken, 2011).The use of mobile devices in learning enhance engagement through providing immediate access to information as well as providing enhanced hands-on learning (Cheng, Yang, Chang, & Kuo, 2016), but warn that mobile devices are most conducive to learning when instruction has been carefully designed to make optimal use of the technology.

Influence of Mobile learning in T/L

Theoretical framework

Srivoranart (2011, 2013, 2016)Ramos Cuevas (2015)Tongwanchai & Fuentes Hurtado (2014)Olmos & Alejaldre (2018)

The culture underlying the Thai society impacts directly in students´ behaviour in the classroom.Students are scared of making mistakes in front of the classroom. Besides, students rarely express their opinions due to "krengjai" (Ramos Cuevas, 2015; Tongwanchai y Fuentes Hurtado, 2014)

Difficulties that Thai students face in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom

Krengjaiis a Thai verb that foreigners find especially difficult to understand. It combines two distinct words:kreng (to fear something or be afraid to act) andjai (of the heart or mind). Its nearest English equivalent might be:to have consideration for another person’s feeling, to be reluctant to disturb or offend, or to be fearful of approaching someone. But its layers of meaning in the Thai language go deeper.Source: Opendemocracy.net

Theoretical framework

Alejaldre, L. & Ramos, E. (2018)Srivoranart (2011, 2013, 2016)Hofstede (2001)Hui (1988)Triandis(1995)Wang, M. (2006)

The cultural dimensions Hofstede (2001) developed are applicable to teaching and learning. He identified five dimensions* to differentiate culture in learning settings: power distance index (PDI), individualism/collectivism (IDV), masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) and long‐term orientation. Among the five dimensions, PDI, IDV and UAI can affect how learners react to course design, conduct and learning activities (Hui, 1988; Triandis, 1995).

Impact of sociocultural characteristics in the teaching and rlearning process

* In 2010, Hofstede added the 6th dimension: uses Minkov’s label Indulgence versus Restraint

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Neurodidactics&FL T/L

Impact of emotions in T/L of FL

ICT inclusion in T/L of FL

Mobile Learning&participation/emotions

Impact of sociocultural characterristics in FL T/L

Research context/Thai student´s profile

Research context and Thai student Profile

https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/thailand/

Among the five dimensions, PDI, IDV and UAI can affect how learners react to course design, conduct and learning activities (Hui, 1988; Triandis, 1995).

With ascore of 20Thailand is ahighly collectivistcountry.Students are loyal to the groupNo individual thoughts, they like to do group work because they are committed to theidentity of the group.The society fosters strong group relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.In order to preserve the in-group, Thai are not confrontationaland in there communication a “Yes” may not mean an acceptance or agreement.An offence leads to loss of face and Thai are very sensitive not to feel shamed in front of their group.

Preference for avoiding uncertainty.To minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty,strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented.The ultimate goal of this population isto control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected.This type of society does not readily accept change.

Thailand’s low score of 32 indicates that Thai culture is more normative than pragmatic. Normative societies, which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.They exhibit great respect for traditions

A high score (Masculine) indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success.A low score (Feminine) means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life.A Feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success andstanding out from the crowd is not admirable.Thailand is considered a Feminine society.Thailand has thelowest Masculinity ranking among the average Asian countriesof 53 and the World average of 50.A society with less assertiveness and competitivenessThis situation also reinforces more traditional male and female roles within the population.

Thailand scores 64 on Power Distance Index,it is a society in which:inequalities are accepted;a strict chain of command and protocol are observed. each rank has its privileges andstudents show loyalty,respect and deference for their teachersin return for protection and guidance.theattitude towards teachers is very formal, the information flow is hierarchical and controlled.

Context and Students´ Profile

(Hofstede, 2011)

Context and Students´ Profile

Context and Students´ Profile

Thai student´s profile

Wai Kru Ceremony

To show respect to Kru (teachers)

Big distance between teachers and students (High Power Index, Hofstede, 2001)

Krengjai

Krengjaiis a Thai verb that foreigners find especially difficult to understand. It combines two distinct words:kreng (to fear something or be afraid to act) andjai (of the heart or mind). Its nearest English equivalent might be:to have consideration for another person’s feeling, to be reluctant to disturb or offend, or to be fearful of approaching someone. But its layers of meaning in the Thai language go deeper.Source: Opendemocracy.net

Students whose sociocultural context view instructors as occupying positions of high relative power to students are likely to be intimidated when interacting in class or with the instructor.

Thai learner profile

What´s the goal of the research project?

To reduce negative emotions present in the classroom, that are associated to the sociocultural characteristics of the context

Using Mobile Learning to raise student´s selfconfidence during the teaching and learning process

Data collection

1. Observation of participation routines in class.2. Documenting the reality.

Pre-experiment:

Experiment:

1. With Experimental Group: Complete activities mediated with mobile devices2. With Control Group: Same activities but not digitalized3. With all participants: personal interviews and surveys

Post-experiment:

1. Observation of participation routines in both groups.2. Analysis of data (interviews, observation and surveys)

Data tools: likert surveys

Data tools: Mentimeter

Online tool to gather inmediate informationStudents don´t need to registerAnonymousReduces anxiety and stress when participating in classInstant feedbackIt promotes collaborative learning

Data tools: Mentimeter

Reading comprenhensionShort text writingPeer correctionVocabulary reviewConjugation review

Data tools: interviews

I like mentimeter because is anonymous and I can express freely.

I like when teacher asks to write short texts and we correct all together on the board

It is very dynamic, I feel motivated.

Data tools: Kahoot

Online tool to gather inmediate informationStudents don´t need to registerAnonymous (nicknames)Reduces anxiety and stress when participating in classInstant feedbackIt promotes collaborative learningGamification of learning

Data tools: Kahoot

Vocabulary reviewGrammar reviewListening comprenhesionReading comprenhesion

Data tools: Kahoot (interviews)

Feb 22 2016 Activities like Kahoot can be very useful to review and motivate us to study better.

Jul 12 2017 09:23 PM Kahoot is one of the coolest apps. That game is so fun and help for vocab and sentences. Love it!

Mar 23 2017 01:34 AM I believe that playing Kahoot or other games can make me get more information. Also, these activities from playing game can motivate students to pay attention more and have relaxed time.

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

Data Analysis & Preliminary Results Reflections

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

An increased use of mobile phones in class is helpful for my Spanish learning

Mobile phones can serve as tools for learning purposes

Data Analysis & Preliminary Results Reflections

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Students should not be allowed to use mobile phones in class

The teacher designs challenging activities to be completed with the phone

Data Analysis & Preliminary Results Reflections

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

I use my mobile phone to search for words that I don´t understand

Using the phone to play kahoot helps me to learn vocabulary

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

Experimental Group

Survey data showed that 76% of students consider Mobile Devices as distractive tools

Control group

Survey data showed that 92% of students consider Mobile Devices as useful lerarning tools

In class observation revealed an increase in spontaneous participation rates comparing to initial data.

100% of students completed succesfully all the activities mediated with digital tools.

In class observation revelead very low spontaneous participation rates (before and after).

83% of students completed all the activities with analogical tools, but did not receive inmediate feedback.

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

Students in the experimental group participated more spontaneously after 3 weeks exposed to activities with Mentimeter and Kahoot.

Kahoot´s ludic component contributes to reduce the fear to make mistakes.

Anonymity helped students in the experimental group to build their selfsteem faster.

Every student in the experimental group had the opportunity to participate in all the activities.

This work is pseudo-experimental and combines qualitative and quantitative data. It was replicated from January 2018 to July 2018, and currently we are analyzing the data, to assess the reliability of this research.

There is still a lot work to be done, but we must bear in mind that mobile learning inclusion in the T/L process of FL must incorporate innovation, not just doing the same than before in another way.

This work has positive results about the use of Mobile devices to raise students´ spontaneous participation and motivation in the foreign language clasrooms.

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

The study revealed that the inclusion of mobile devices in the Thai SFL classroom minimizes the influence of the stress associated with the students’ sociocultural context, and maximizes their participation in classroom activities.

In whatever ways mobile devices are employed, mobile devices and educational applications should not “complicate the learning process, but facilitate mobile learners' learning” (Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan, & Yang, 2010)

Data Analysis & Preliminary Reflections

REFERENCES

Aida, Y. (1994). “Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese”, en The Modern Language Journal, 78, 155-168. Arnold, J. y Brown, H.D. (2000), “Mapa del terreno”, en Arnold, J. (ed.) La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas. Madrid: Cambridge University Press. Ávila, J. y Foncubierta, J. M., (2015). “La alfabetización visual y la visualización en el desarrollo de estrategias afectivas” en Ávila, J. (coord), Didáctica de la emoción: de la investigación al aula de ELE. pp. 47-62 Disponible en: http://marcoele.com/descargas/21/didactica-emocion.pdf Fernández López, Ma Sonsoles (1996): «Universalidad versus idiosincrasia en el aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera», Actas de VII Congreso Internacional de ASELE, http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/asele/pdf/07/07_0219.pdfGardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic. Goleman, D. (1996), Inteligencia emocional. Barcelona: Kairós. Horwitz, E.K. (2012), Becoming a Language Teacher: A Practical Guide to Second Language Learning and Teaching (2a ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Iampramoon, T. (2015). La enseñanza y el aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera en Tailandia: expectativas de profesores y motivaciones de alumnos. Tesina de máster. George Mason University, Virginia.Kagan, J. (1994), On the nature of emotions, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59: 7–24. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01275.xLiu, T.‐C., Wang, H.‐Y., Liang, J.‐K., Chan, T.‐W., Ko, H.‐W. & Yang, J.‐C. (2003). Wireless and mobile technologies to enhance teaching and learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 3, 371–382.

REFERENCES

Méndez Santos, M. (2016). “Gramática afectiva en contextos de instrucción formal de español como lengua extranjera (ELE)”, Hesperia: Anuario de filología hispánica,ISSN1139-3181,Nº 19, 2, 2016,págs.51-84 Mora, F. (2013). Neuroeducación. Solo se puede aprender aquello que se ama. Alianza Editorial, Madrid.Ortega, A. (2007). “Anxiety and self-esteem”, en F.D. Rubio (ed.), Self-esteem and foreign language learning. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 105-127. Ramos Cuevas, P. (2014). “La situación actual de la enseñanza del español en Tailandia”, en Actas de VIII Congreso de la Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas Rodríguez Santos, J.M. (2015). “Integración afectiva y efectiva de la tecnología en los cursos de ele y la formación del profesorado” en Ávila, J. (coord), Didáctica de la emoción: de la investigación al aula de ELE. pp. 47-62 Disponible en: http://marcoele.com/descargas/21/didactica-emocion.pdf Rubio Alcalá, F. (2015) La autoestima y la ansiedad en la clase de español como lengua extranjera, en Ávila, J. (coord), Didáctica de la emoción: de la investigación al aula de ELE. pp. 47-62 Disponible en: http://marcoele.com/descargas/21/didactica-emocion.pdf Penadés Martínez, Inmaculada (2003): «Las clasificaciones de errores lingüísticos en el marco del análisis de errores», Lingüística en la Red, 1. http://www.linred.es. Poopuang, Sukij (2005): Análisis de errores de los alumnos tailandeses de español, Trabajo de investigación no publicado, Madrid, Universidad de Autónoma de Madrid. Santos Gargallo, Isabel (1993): Análisis contrastivo, análisis de errores e interlengua en el marco de la lingüística contrastiva, Madrid, Síntesis. Srivoranart, P. J. (2009). “Problemas de fonética española de los alumnos tailandeses”,Foro de profesores de español como Lengua Extranjera,V, 2009, (ISSN 1886-337X; www.uv.es/foroele).

REFERENCES

Srivoranart, P. J. (2010). “Análisis contrastivo de los refranes de dos mundos: refranes españoles – refranes tailandeses”, Interlingüística XXI, Universidad de Valladolid, 2010, p. 453-464.Srivoranart, P. J. (2011). El proceso de aprendizaje de ELE por parte de alumnos tailandeses: condicionantes lingüísticos y culturales, Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid. Recuperado de: http://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/redele/Material-RedEle/Biblioteca/2013-bv-14/2013_BV_14_04Pempisa-%20Srivoranartpdf?documentId=0901e72b8153cb81 Srivoranart, P. J. (2011b). “Distintos aspectos de la subjetividad enNadayMala gente que camina”,Espéculo, Núm. 47, marzo-junio 2011 (http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero47/nadamala.html) (2011c). “Enfoque reflexivo-participativo: nueva alternativa para la enseñanza de ELE”,Actas de III Encuentros ELE Comillas. Srivoranart, P. J.(2015). “Creación de la conciencia moral y social en la didáctica de ELE”,Actas de VIII Congreso de la Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas. Srivoranart, P. J. (2014). Intercultural business communication: Colombia and Thailand”. (co-autora: Nunghatai Rangponsumrit). En Tremolada, Eric (Ed.),Colombia in the International System: Its Projection in Asia, Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, p. 419-438.Srivoranart, P. J. (2016). “Enseñanza adaptada al estilo de aprendizaje de los alumnos: estilo reflexivo y actividades para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico”,Actas de XXV Congreso Internacional ASELE

REFERENCES

Srivoranart, P. J. (2010). “Análisis contrastivo de los refranes de dos mundos: refranes españoles – refranes tailandeses”, Interlingüística XXI, Universidad de Valladolid, 2010, p. 453-464.Srivoranart, P. J. (2011). El proceso de aprendizaje de ELE por parte de alumnos tailandeses: condicionantes lingüísticos y culturales, Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid. Recuperado de: http://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/redele/Material-RedEle/Biblioteca/2013-bv-14/2013_BV_14_04Pempisa-%20Srivoranartpdf?documentId=0901e72b8153cb81 Srivoranart, P. J. (2011b). “Distintos aspectos de la subjetividad enNadayMala gente que camina”,Espéculo, Núm. 47, marzo-junio 2011 (http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero47/nadamala.html) (2011c). “Enfoque reflexivo-participativo: nueva alternativa para la enseñanza de ELE”,Actas de III Encuentros ELE Comillas. Srivoranart, P. J.(2015). “Creación de la conciencia moral y social en la didáctica de ELE”,Actas de VIII Congreso de la Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas. Srivoranart, P. J. (2014). Intercultural business communication: Colombia and Thailand”. (co-autora: Nunghatai Rangponsumrit). En Tremolada, Eric (Ed.),Colombia in the International System: Its Projection in Asia, Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, p. 419-438.Srivoranart, P. J. (2016). “Enseñanza adaptada al estilo de aprendizaje de los alumnos: estilo reflexivo y actividades para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico”,Actas de XXV Congreso Internacional ASELE.

Srivoranart, P. J.(2015). “Creación de la conciencia moral y social en la didáctica de ELE”, Actas de VIII Congreso de la Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas.Srivoranart, P. J. (2014). Intercultural business communication: Colombia and Thailand”. (co-autora: Nunghatai Rangponsumrit). En Tremolada, Eric (Ed.), Colombia in the International System: Its Projection in Asia, Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, p. 419-438.Srivoranart, P. J. (2016). “Enseñanza adaptada al estilo de aprendizaje de los alumnos: estilo reflexivo y actividades para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico”, Actas de XXV Congreso Internacional ASELE .Tongwanchai, F; Fuentes, M. (2015). “La enseñanza del español para el turismo en Tailandia”, Actas V Congreso Internacional FIAPE. Recuperado de http://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/redele/Material-RedEle/Numeros%20Especiales/2015-v-congreso-fiape/comunicaciones/12.-la-ensenanza-del-espanol-para-el-turismo-en---tongwanchaifuangket.pdf?documentId=0901e72b81ec6059 Vázquez, Graciela (1991): Análisis de errores y aprendizaje de español/lengua extranjera, Frankfurt am Main, Peter LangVázquez, Graciela (1991): Análisis de errores y aprendizaje de español/lengua extranjera, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang.Wang, M. , Shen, R. , Novak, D. and Pan, X. (2009), The impact of mobile learning on students' learning behaviours and performance: Report from a large blended classroom. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40: 673-695. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00846.x

REFERENCES

Srivoranart, P. J.(2015). “Creación de la conciencia moral y social en la didáctica de ELE”, Actas de VIII Congreso de la Asociación Asiática de Hispanistas.Srivoranart, P. J. (2014). Intercultural business communication: Colombia and Thailand”. (co-autora: Nunghatai Rangponsumrit). En Tremolada, Eric (Ed.), Colombia in the International System: Its Projection in Asia, Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, p. 419-438.Srivoranart, P. J. (2016). “Enseñanza adaptada al estilo de aprendizaje de los alumnos: estilo reflexivo y actividades para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico”, Actas de XXV Congreso Internacional ASELE .Tongwanchai, F; Fuentes, M. (2015). “La enseñanza del español para el turismo en Tailandia”, Actas V Congreso Internacional FIAPE. Recuperado de http://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/redele/Material-RedEle/Numeros%20Especiales/2015-v-congreso-fiape/comunicaciones/12.-la-ensenanza-del-espanol-para-el-turismo-en---tongwanchaifuangket.pdf?documentId=0901e72b81ec6059 Vázquez, Graciela (1991): Análisis de errores y aprendizaje de español/lengua extranjera, Frankfurt am Main, Peter LangVázquez, Graciela (1991): Análisis de errores y aprendizaje de español/lengua extranjera, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang.Wang, M. , Shen, R. , Novak, D. and Pan, X. (2009), The impact of mobile learning on students' learning behaviours and performance: Report from a large blended classroom. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40: 673-695. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00846.x

REFERENCES

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Mobile Learning: A Catalyst for Promoting an Optimal Classroom Environment in the Teaching and Learning of Spanish in Thailand

Dr. Eva Álvarez RamosUniversidad de Valladolidevamaria.alvarez.ramos@uva.es

Dr. Leyre Alejaldre BielColumbia Universityla2771@columbia.edu