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The safety of journalists in the UN system,The Digital Defenders First Aid Kit,",Journalists in Distress: Securing Your Digital Life,",Mapping Journalism,2014,UN General Assembly (UNGA) declares November 2 the International Day to End Impunity on Crimes against Journalists,,,,,The public recognition of journalistic work is important: greater visibility and publicity for journalistic inquiries and cases of threatened journalists helps recognise journalism's contribution to society and culture. It is important to open systematic communication channels between journalists and the public, including at the transnational level. Visibility boosts solidarity and encourages journalists to continue their work. In addition to well-known indexes that rank countries according to the level of freedom available to journalists, several international and national organisations have developed monitoring tools that record and make violations visible in order to better advocate for journalists’ safety.,,,SHELTER PROGRAMMES in EUROPE,,What do journalists need?,,Surveillance Self-Defence Checklist,,Academic and other stakeholders can make progress in securing a world in which journalistic work can be done without fear of attack - online, offline and in varying combinations between these two.,,,,,,Platform to promote the protection of journalism and safety of journalists in Europe,Pro-bono legal assistance,OnTheLine: Tracking digital attacks against journalists,1· Visibility & International Solidarity (p. 7)2 · Unions & Networks (p. 8)3· A Safe House for Journalists Under Threat (pp. 9-10) 4 · Digital Safety (pp. 11-12)5 · Pro-bono Legal Assistance (pp. 13-15),,e,The Rory Peck Foundation’s Digital Security Guide,Tools and facilities to protect journalists in Europe,Guy BergerDirector for Freedom of Expression and Media Development UNESCO,www.rcmediafreedom.eu,,,In 2015, 110 interviews to media professionals from South East Europe were carried out to identify the needs of journalists under threat.The report “Building a safety net for European Journalists” detected four pressing needs: 1) physical safety; 2) management of the threat; 3) solidarity and psychological support; 4) legal and financial assistance. Specific protection mechanisms are required to allow journalists to feel safe and supported. This special dossier investigates whether and where such tools and facilities are available with the two-fold goal to provide a handy reference for journalists in Europe and to highlight neglected areas of intervention.,As reported by the UNESCO in the publication “Building digital safety for journalism”, the growing digitisation of journalism - which brings unprecedented benefits - has been accompanied by worrying trends emerging from the digital world: digital surveillance, hacking of data, and disruptive attacks on websites and computer systems are daily risks for journalists working online. Journalists and other actors doing journalism with digital technologies face a range of digital challenges and dangers, which sometimes contribute to the hostile environment they face in the physical world.This section features a selection of tools and practical resources that journalists can use to defend themselves against online attacks, protect their devices - but also privacy, information, and sources, increase awareness of online threats, and mitigate risks.,,,,DIGITAL SAFETY,,,,UNIONS & NETWORKS,Introduction,A safe house for journalists under threat,,4 Points,,,,,Journalists under attack feel isolated and abandoned in absence of active networks of solidarity and support. As identified by the media professionals surveyed for the essay “Building a Safety Net for Journalists in Europe”, unionising is a necessary condition for the safety of journalists because it provides both psychological and practical support.,,,Journalists under pressure -Unwarranted interference, fear and self-censorship in EuropeMarilyn Clark and Anna Grech ,",1970,UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 2673 (XXV). Protection of Journalists engaged in dangerous missions in areas of armed conflict,1981,Project for the Establishment of an International Commission and Periodical International Conference for the Protection of Journalists (UNESCO),1993,2012,Establishment of the UN World Press Freedom DayEstablishment of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression,The UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists designs a systematic strategy to work toward a free and safe environment for journalists and media workers, covering both conflict and non-conflict situations,1993,The protection of journalists did not appear on the UN agenda until the 1970s. At first, media companies in the US opposed any regulation as it was considered detrimental to the free flow of information. In fact, the word "protection" was long rejected to avoid any implicit connection to media control. A UN strategy on the issue was defined only after the approval of the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists in 2012. As stated by researcher Silvia Chocarro Marcesse in the publication The Assault on Journalism: "From the beginning of the UN Plan process in 2011 until December 2016 the UN system approved more resolutions than ever [...] the issue of journalists' safety and impunity for crimes committed against them has taken on the most prominent position it has ever had in the UN's history." ,2006,UN Security Council (UNSC) approves the first resolution on the protection of journalists urging states to ensure a safe environment for journalism during armed conflict,", Among 940 journalists from the Council of Europe's countries surveyed, 35% did not feel that they had mechanisms at their disposal for reporting interference. ,371,physical assaults in Europe between 2014 and 2018 (Index on Censorship),digital attacks against journalists in Europe between 2014 and 2018(Index on Censorhip),,,journalists killed in Europe between 2014 and 2018(Index on Censorship),THREATS TO JOURNALISTS IN EUROPE,“In Europe the regional indicator has worsened most, although it is still the safest environment for journalists in the world” (2018 World Press Freedom Index),234,19,Various European and international human rights bodies have criticised the imposition of criminal sanctions in defamation cases, as they carry a greater potential to generate a chilling effect on the media. Monitoring by press freedom groups indicates that criminal defamation cases are consistently used at a global level to target journalists in retaliation for unwanted investigations or commentary. The IPI’s report “Defamation and Insult Laws in the OSCE Region: A Comparative Study” (2017) finds that criminal defamation and insult laws are still on the statute books in 75% of OSCE participating States. IPI also finds that, in contradiction with the democratic pillars of public scrutiny and accountability, nearly half of OSCE participating States grant special protection to the reputation and honour of heads of state and other public bodies.,VISIBILITY & INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY,Mapping Media Freedom,Violations of press freedom barometer,,The Access Now’s Digital Security Helpline,Surveillance self-defense,Security in-a-Box,445,The term SLAPP was coined in 1996 by US scholars George W. Pring and Penelope Canan to define a lawsuit filed by powerful subjects against non-government individuals or organisations who expressed a critical position on a substantive issue of some political interest or social significance. Such ‘Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation’ aim to shut down critical speech by intimidating critics and draining their resources. Following Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia’s murder, a group of MEPs has been calling on the EU Commission to promote an anti-SLAPP EU directive which would entitle investigative journalists and media groups to request the rapid dismissal of “vexatious lawsuits”. Given the rise of SLAPPs practices, several organisations and law firms offer free legal defence (i.e. pro-bono) to make up for the absence of proper regulation. ,Pro-bono legal assistance,Journalists play a critical role in exposing human rights violations as well as providing vital information and analysis of current events. Simply documenting and sharing information can simultaneously place them at risk and at the forefront of human rights defence. In 2008, the European Union approved the “Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders”, stating that their protection “is one of the major priorities of the EU's external human rights policy”. A flexible definition of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs) is found in the UN Declaration (1998), that refers to “individuals, groups and associations […] contributing to […] the effective elimination of all violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of peoples and individuals”. As underlined by the OHCHR, “it is through a description of their actions and of some of the contexts in which they work that the term can be best explained”. In their general role, journalists are not human rights defenders; however, by acting as witnesses, fighting for the right to free expression, and alerting the world to human rights abuses, journalists become defenders in their own right, entitled to all the protection mechanisms afforded to their peers.,defamation cases in Europe between 2014 and 2018 (Index on Censorship),[last update: November 26, 2018],Contents,PRO-BONO LEGAL ASSISTANCE in EUROPE